Monday, September 30, 2019
Ã¢â¬ ¢Summarize the employment-at-will doctrine and evaluate each of the eight (8) scenarios described by determining: The employment-at-will doctrine states that an employee can be fired or released from a company for cause or no cause at all. The employee also has the right to quit a job for any reason. Under this legislation, neither the employer or employee incurs Ã¢â¬Å"adverse legal consequencesÃ¢â¬ (NCSL, 2014). There are three exceptions that are observed by the law to include a dismissal that Ã¢â¬Å"violates a stateÃ¢â¬â¢s public policy, where there is an implied contract for employment, or where there is an implied covenant of good faith and fair dealingÃ¢â¬ (Muhl, 2001, p4). People cannot be fired based on the Ã¢â¬Å"individualÃ¢â¬â¢s race, color, religion, sex, or national originÃ¢â¬ (Halbert & Ingulli, 2012, p134). An individual can also not be fired based on a disability or due to filing a workmanÃ¢â¬â¢s comp claim. Imagine you are a recently-hired Chief Operating Officer (COO) in a midsize company preparing for an Initial Public Offering (IPO). You quickly discover multiple personnel problems that require your immediate attention. As an astute manager, you will need to analyze the employment-at-will doctrine and determine what, if any, exceptions and liabilities exist before taking any action. oWhether you can legally fire the employee; include an assessment of any pertinent exceptions to the employment-at-will doctrine. oWhat action you should take to limit liability and impact on operations; specify which ethical theory best supports your decision. Ã¢â¬ ¢John posted a rant on his Facebook page in which he criticized the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s most important customer. JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s actions took place on his own time, and the information was posted on his personal site. The action from the company would depend on whether John made the post and none of his coworkers chimed in or agreed with him, or if someone did agree with him. Concerted activity is protected under the law but not grunts and groaning from one employee. According to Eidelson (2012), Ã¢â¬Å"concerted activity will take different forms for different workersÃ¢â¬ . Quite simply put, JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s post could cause a loss of business for the company or even a disgruntled customer, not to mention the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s most important customer. The company would be protected in firing him. I made this decision based on the EthicsÃ of Care. John made a comment about our most important customer, and it is the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s business to make sure the customer continues to be our most important customer. Ã¢â¬ ¢Jim sent an email to other salespeople protesting a change in commission schedules and bonuses and suggesting everyone boycott the next sales meeting. JimÃ¢â¬â¢s case is interesting. The answer to firing him is it depends. If Jim is disgruntled and just decided to send out an email to all of his coworkers to get them roweled up, then he could be fired legally. However, if he had been talking to other employees and then sent them an email to further talk about actions to take, he would be protected under the law as Ã¢â¬Å"protected concerted activityÃ¢â¬ (Eidelson, 2012). Also, the judge may look at JimÃ¢â¬â¢s case to see if he talked with any of the upper management about concerns before trying to get others to boycott. The judge would check to see if Jim was part of a union as well. In one case where an employee sent an email, the judge ruled that her firing was legal, because her email Ã¢â¬Å"merely expressed an individual gripe rather than any shared concerns about w orking conditionsÃ¢â¬ (Newby, 2013). Since this description did not say that other employees joined in with Jim, the judge would rule that his firing was legal. After firing Jim, I would call a meeting with the rest of the employees to make sure that JimÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude towards the company had not spread to others and to try to find some solutions if it had. I made this decision based on the Virtue Ethics model. Ã¢â¬ ¢Ellen started a blog to protest the CEOÃ¢â¬â¢s bonus, noting that no one below director has gotten a raise in two (2) years and portraying her bosses as Ã¢â¬Å"know-nothingsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"out-of-touchÃ¢â¬ . Ellen started a blog to protest the CEOÃ¢â¬â¢s bonus. The employer would need to make sure that EllenÃ¢â¬â¢s post had not been commented on by other employees who were in agreement with her. The company should also look to itsÃ¢â¬â¢ social media policy if it has one. The employer could be covered if the policy states that employees cannot speak derogatorily about their boss or coworkers online. The Ã¢â¬Å"National Labor Relations Act states that workers have the right to discuss their wages and conditions of employmentÃ¢â¬ ; however, Ã¢â¬Å"griping or ranting by a single employee is not protectedÃ¢â¬ (Rogers, 2013). Ellen stepped across the line by criticizing the CEO of the company and calling him names. This could cause a rift in the company and lower morale. The company would be justified in firing Ellen. I would do this based on Deontology which focuses on rights and duties,Ã telling the truth and fairness (Halbert & Ingulli, 2012, p17). Ã¢â¬ ¢Bill has been using his company-issued BlackBerry to run his own business on the side. Bill was given the company-issued BlackBerry to use for work. As I read in most articles, it is expected that in this digital age employees will use their employersÃ¢â¬â¢ equipment for some type of personal use. Most companies have policies on the use of company equipment. If Bill is a good employee, there is no loss of productivity, a nd the majority of his personal business is taking place during off-time, Bill should not be fired, and it would not be deemed legal, unless the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s policy says something different. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s policy should be Ã¢â¬Å"clearly communicated to all employees andÃ¢â¬ and be Ã¢â¬Å"consistently enforcedÃ¢â¬ as well (BizFilings, 2012). Bill should be aware that the employer Ã¢â¬ generally can monitor, listen in and record employee phone calls on employer owned phonesÃ¢â¬ to include Ã¢â¬Å"voice mail and text messagesÃ¢â¬ (Bussing, 2011). So if his employer found that he was exchanging insider information about the company through the company BlackBerry, they would be justified in firing him. I chose this course of action based on Virtue Ethics. If Bill feels his employer trusts him, he will most likely remain trustworthy and honest to the company. Ã¢â¬ ¢The secretaries in the accounting department decided to dress in black-and-white stripes to protest a memo announcing that the company has installed keylogger software on all company computers. The secretaries could not be legally fired in this instance. The secretaries would also be covered under the National Labor Relations Act. They are silently protesting the keylogger software. There is more than one person involved in this silent protest and they have the right to discuss Ã¢â¬Å"conditions of employmentÃ¢â¬ (Rogers, 2013). I chose this based on the Ethics of Care. The secretaries obviously do not agree with a new procedure in the workplace. The upper management should not come down on them for that. The secretaries are quietly organizing themselves, and they should have the right to disagree. Ã¢â¬ ¢After being disciplined for criticizing a customer in an email (sent from his personal email account on a company computer), Joe threatens to sue the company for invasion of privacy. Company computers are company computers. The company has the right to information that is sent on itsÃ¢â¬â¢ computers, especially during work hours. Joe should not be discussing work business through his personal emails. Joe would not be covered under the FirstÃ Amendment, because it Ã¢â¬Å"protects all of us from the government, not from private companiesÃ¢â¬ (NOLO, 2014). I chose this action based on Free Market Ethics. This model focuses on what is good for the company. Joe cannot stay with the company while criticizing the customers, especially through his personal email at work. If the company keeps Joe around and the information gets out, it could lose more than it would by letting him go. Ã¢â¬ ¢One of the department supervisors requests your approval to fire his secretary for insubordination. Since the secretary has always received glowing reviews, you call her into your office and determine that she has refused to prepare false expense reports for her boss. The secretaryÃ¢â¬â¢s firing would not be justified in this situation. Although the secretary is an employee at will who could be fired for cause or no reason at all, it appears that the secretary is being retaliated against for refusing to prepare corrupt documents. The secretaryÃ¢â¬â¢s reviews have always been great, so there is no presence of a developmental plan or previous violations of company policy. The company most likely has some type of policy for progressive discipline, so if the supervisor did not follow the plan to the letter, the firing would not be justified. I chose this action based on Deontology. The employer has the obligation to be honest and to remain steadfast Ã¢â¬Å"to universal princip lesÃ¢â¬ (Halbert & Ingulli, 2012, p17). Ã¢â¬ ¢AnnaÃ¢â¬â¢s boss refused to sign her leave request for jury duty and now wants to fire her for being absent without permission. AnnaÃ¢â¬â¢s boss could not legally fire her due to serving jury duty. Ã¢â¬Å"Most states prohibit employers from firing or disciplining employees called to serve on a juryÃ¢â¬Å" and some states Ã¢â¬Å"prohibit employers from trying to discourage or intimidate employees from servingÃ¢â¬ (NOLO, 2014). AnnaÃ¢â¬â¢s boss could be Ã¢â¬Å"held in contempt of courtÃ¢â¬ if Anna did not show up to court because of her employerÃ¢â¬â¢s decision (Gordon, 2012). I chose this action based on Utilitarianism, because the choice of firing Anna due to attending jury duty may have a detrimental effect on the entire workplace. As you proceed with your investigation, you discover the company has no whistleblower policy. Ã¢â¬ ¢Take a position on whether or not you would recommend to the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) that the company adopt a whistleblower policy. Support the position. I would recommend to the CEO that the company adopt a whistleblower policy. It is important to have such a policy so that people know the proper steps to take when disclosingÃ information of wrongdoing in the workplace and know that they will be protected for sharing such information. In the situation between the supervisor and his secretary, a whistleblowing policy could have exposed the issue earlier. It seemed that the secretary did not tell anyone about the supervisor pressuring her to create false documents, until she was faced with losing her job. Ã¢â¬ ¢Justify at least three (3) fundamental items that should be included in a whistleblower policy. Provide a rationale for your selection of each of the three (3) recommended items. The first item that should be included in a whistleblower policy is the Ã¢â¬Å"responsibility to disclose that information to appropriate parties inside the organizationÃ¢â¬ (Barnett, 1992). The employees are the ones who are going to see the wrongdoing most likely. Without laying the responsibility on the employees, they may not know how important it is to the company and may not feel supported in their efforts to share information. This part of the policy should also include that the process will take place within the organization and that all information given should be done so Ã¢â¬Å"in good faithÃ¢â¬ (Barnett, 1992). The second item that should be included in a whistleblowing policy is a group of neutral people Ã¢â¬Å"outside the chain of command as complaint recipientsÃ¢â¬ (Barnett, 199 2). This should make people feel more comfortable sharing violations, because they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to worry about backlash from sharing information. It would make it much harder for an employee to disclose information to the group if he knew the person he was telling on was best friends with someone on the committee. Finally, the policy should outline the steps of the investigation process and give assurance to the whistleblower that there will be no Ã¢â¬Å"adverse employment consequencesÃ¢â¬ (Barnett, 1992). The Whistleblower Acts should also be included in the employee handbook so that employees not only understand the policy within their current workplace, but as it is stated by the government. The employee will know what is covered and what is not. References Barnett, T. (1992). Why Your Company Should Have a Whistleblowing Policy.Retrieved May 4th, 2014, from http://ethics.csc.ncsu.edu /old/12_00/basics/whistle/rst/wstlblo_policy.html BizFilings. (2012). Using Policies to Address EmployeesÃ¢â¬â¢ Personal Use of BusinessEquipment. Retrieved May 4th, 2014, from
Posted by Eddie Diaz at 11:07 PM
Review the list of reasons why plans fail as described in Ch. 11 of Project Management. Which of these reasons applies to defining and sequencing activities? As a project manager, what steps may you take to prevent your plan from failing? There are many reasons why plans fail to succeed. In discussing our answers to this question, Team C felt that in the list of reasons on why plans fail, poor planning would be on top of the list. When there are no attempts in pushing forward with already made plans, the project is bound to fail. Another reason why project plans fail is because the data in which plans are based are insufficient making it difficult for project managers to take control and give out orders. With insufficient data, the projectÃ¢â¬â¢s scope would seize to exist. Along with not have an identified scope, the team would not know the ultimate objective of the project, and because of this, people will work towards different directions rather than one common goal. It is important that the reasons on the list are taken care of or prevented. This can be done during the defining and sequencing process. As a project manager, the steps we discussed that are necessary to be taken in order to prevent a plan from failing would be to properly develop a projectÃ¢â¬â¢s plan. This would include defining each activityÃ¢â¬â¢s relevance to the project. By doing so, there is a stated initiative as well as a reason why the project is being done. In order to have a properly developed plan, we would hold a kick off meeting, which would discuss the expectations of every team member, have the purpose clearly conveyed to the team, as well as build strong and positive team energy. There would be frequent follow-ups in order to assure that each step is being completed to getting the project finished. Lastly, we would offer rewards as incentives for the team to complete their tasks efficiently and on time.
Posted by Eddie Diaz at 12:00 AM
Saturday, September 28, 2019
You ever watch television and see the commercials for colleges and hear the people say Ã¢â¬Å"this college changed my lifeÃ¢â¬ or hear that the school has classes for the major your interested in. Then you get the urge to go back to school and you see that thereÃ¢â¬â¢s not much requirements to get into these schools as long as you have money for tuition. Those are what you call for-profit schools. Now the question is are these schools actually good for you? Can they help you in the long run or just give you classes and youÃ¢â¬â¢re on your own after you get the degree. I feel that for-profit schools should not be federally regulated because these colleges provide opportunities for students ignored and rejected by traditional colleges, they provide flexibility for students and some regulations may reduce graduation rates. Some people didnÃ¢â¬â¢t do the best in high school or probably didnÃ¢â¬â¢t finish high school and have a GED but still want to attend college. Most tradition and private colleges probably wonÃ¢â¬â¢t even look at their application if their grade point average is below a certain number or if they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have a high school diploma. This is why we need for-profit colleges because they tend to those people who still want to further their education. It may seem like for-profit colleges only focus on getting money from students but they still offer the same education that private and traditional colleges offer just in a different way or amount of time. If there is government regulation then most people probably wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be able to attend any schools. With government regulations, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s most likely going to be government requirements along with the school requirements. Ã¢â¬Å"The for-profit sector is not only more robust than the rest of higher education, it is helping to force some changes in the way traditional colleges do business. Ã¢â¬ (Wilson) For-profit colleges are giving traditional colleges a run for their money. Not only do these colleges help those who canÃ¢â¬â¢t get into traditional and private schools it also helps adults who are working during the day or have children. For-profit colleges provide connivence and flexibility. They offer a lot of classes online and during hours that some other colleges may not be open. Most for-profit schools classes are in sessions and not just spread out throughout the day. Ã¢â¬Å"The Art Institute of Pittsburgh runs three sessions a day: from 8am until noon, 1pm until 5 pm and 6pm until 10pm. Ã¢â¬ Classes like this will benefit those who canÃ¢â¬â¢t find a babysitter or who needs to take an extra class to get the degree they want but have a 9-5 job. Another thing is the classes arenÃ¢â¬â¢t as long as the traditional schools. In a traditional school you may have to take a class for four or five months. In for-profit schools the classes may last from five to nine weeks. Now that may not seem like a good idea but these classes help those students to plan their life around their schedule. Once again with government regulations it may be against the law to have classes after a certain time of day or some classes it may be mandatory to be in class and not online and then it messes with people schedule. Ã¢â¬Å"At a time when American public higher education is cutting budgets, laying people off, and turning away students, the rise of for-profit universities has been meteoric. Ã¢â¬ If other colleges are turning down students how will the graduation rate increase like President Obama wants it to. We need these for-profit schools to help the economy and to get more people educated and working. Ã¢â¬Å"Enrollment in the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s nearly 3,ooo career colleges has grown far faster than in the rest of higher education. Ã¢â¬ This means that more people are getting an education and graduating with degrees and certificates. For-profit schools may cost more than traditional schools but the government helps traditional schools out with money. These schools are getting there revenue from sponsors and the students tuition. Ã¢â¬Å"For-profit universities now educate about 7 percent of the nations roughly 19 million students who enroll at degree-granting institutions each fall. And the proportion rises 10 percent, or 2. 6 million, if you count who enroll year round. Ã¢â¬ In conclusion with students enrolling into these for-profit schools and getting an education in a shorter time period than traditional schools that will increase the graduation rate. These schools teach the same information as traditional schools and the main reason why people are complaining about these schools are because they do not have accreditation. These schools have to prove themselves to get accreditation so they still have to run until they can get it. What would be the difference between the classes being taught now and when they get accreditation? Job placements for some majors are granted and some may not be because of experience not of the education.
Posted by Eddie Diaz at 10:51 PM
Friday, September 27, 2019
Classroom management - Essay Example so required to get their learning materials in place, which include sharpening of pencils, and acquisition of new exercise books to replace the filled ups. Moreover, the students are expected to hand in their take home assignments to the class representative. Confirming their presence by marking the attendance sheet is also a routine that all students ought to observe at the beginning of the day. It is important for the student to receive spiritual nourishment before the classes kick off on daily basis. The students should therefore embrace prayers and scripture readings before the lessons begin. Holding prayers on daily basis before the classes kick on is an important routine that should be observed by the students. Holding a class assembly is daily routine that students ought to embrace prior to the start of classes. This routine provides a forum for discussion regarding the activities of the day and the class performance. During this forum, the problems affecting the whole class or some members of the class are discussed extensively. The factors affecting the class performance and the possible remedies are also handled during the class assembly. The class teacher will also use this forum to encourage the students and to tip them on any change regarding the school programs. The students will also be updated on any changes in the school timetable. The routines stated above are important to the students in many ways. First, it is imperative that cleanliness ensures good learning environment hence fostering the concentration of the students on academic matters and other disciplines. Secondly, devotion ensures robust spiritual well being of the students. This builds the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ moral behaviors hence fostering the sense of discipline amongst the students. Thirdly, it is imperative that the class assemblies provide avenues for addressing problems that affect the learning ability of the students. After class-work before the day ends, the students should
Posted by Eddie Diaz at 9:40 PM
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Plowshares and Pruning Hooks - Essay Example The mode in which prophecies have been presented continues to hinder many people from understanding prophecies. The figurative languages used do not show any relevance and meaning even if confirmed from the dictionary1. Another problem that faces people who try to interpret prophecies is emotional language used in the prophecies. Most prophecies are full of emotions, exaggerations, excitement, and shock and this affects the manner in which different people interpret and understand prophecies. Another problem that affects prophecies is that God does not mention conditions in promised blessings. God in form of visions and dreams sends most prophecies. The ability to interpret the symbolic visions and dreams from the figurative language to words and writings also affects the level of interpretation of the prophecies. Interpretation ability therefore depends on the feelings and temperaments of the prophet in question. Most prophets in their writing employ the use of apocalyptic literatur e, which is quite different from prophecy but just a sub-genre under prophecy. The use of apocalyptic literature is full of emotions, which are aiming at attracting and capturing the interest of the reader or the audience. This literature has helped me in understanding the scriptures more. Most of us read this prophesies and expect that things will happen exactly the same way as indicated in the scriptures. This piece of literature has changed my interpretation and understanding of the prophecies. I now understand why God does not give conditions and exact timeline as to when His promises will take place. Proper understanding of the descriptive and figurative language has also contributed to my understanding and interpretation of the scriptures. Part 2: The Gospel According to Isaiah 53 by Darrell L. Bock and Mitch Glaser Isaiah 2:1-22 The second chapter of Isaiah is written in form of a poem from the beginning to the fifth verse. Isaiah is praising God and giving his promises to Go d concerning the people of Israel. Poetry is amongst the seven key features that Isaiah uses in order to communicate his message and make the people of Israel to repent their evil ways and go back to God. The theme that Isaiah uses in his prophecy is the theme of anger. From verse six Isaiah is unhappy with the people of Israel for their continued disobedience to God. To express his anger, Isaiah goes to an extent of telling God not to forgive His people. Verse 9 Ã¢â¬Å"everyone will be humiliated and disgraced. Do not forgive them LordÃ¢â¬ 2. Isaiah also uses hyperbole in this prophecy in order to make people repent. In his prophecy he says that the Lord will destroy all the tall cedars of Lebanon and all the oaks of Bashan Isaiah 2: 13. In verse 14 of the same chapter, he says that the Lord will level all the mountains and hills due to His anger. In addition to this Isaiah uses exaggeration to communicate his message. He tells God that the Israelites land is full of silver and g old and therefore there is no end to their treasures. He also continues by arguing that their land is full of horses hence no end to their chariots. Just already discussed in part of this assignment, Isaiah does not give exactly the date when GodÃ¢â¬â¢s wrath will inflict the people of Israel. Isaiah says in verse 11 that Ã¢â¬Å"a day is coming when human pride will be ended and human arrogance destroyed.Ã¢â¬ The scripture does not identify exactly when this will happen. It is
Posted by Eddie Diaz at 11:25 PM
International Acoounting theory - Essay Example The process of cutting down disparities among national accounting regulations, also referred to as the process of harmonization, has undoubtedly made steps forward since profound work began on it as freshly as 1967. Taking into account the dissimilarities that are present between the accounting goals of nations at various levels of progress and with various legal structures, possibly the astonishing thing is that any development at all has been accomplished in such short notice (McCarthy 2003). There are several theoretical assumptions of categorizing countries when taking into account their accounting requirements. One apparent difference is between the democracies and the authoritarian administrations that govern a great portion of the world. This difference does not match up efficiently to a partition between free enterprise and centrally regulated economies, because there are democracies such in the case of India with a considerable section of the economy in the control of state-owned and state-regulated enterprises, and there are those countries which are communist such as Hungary and Yugoslavia that leave capacity for a number of free enterprise (Solomons 1986). The relevance of this difference for financial accounting depends in the contribution of private investors as well as the capital market. They will commonly be much more relevant in free enterprise economies, and financial accounting will function in the same way more important role in the allocation and dist ribution of scarce resources (ibid, 53). Another evident difference is between the industrialized nations of North America, Europe, Australia and Japan and developing nations of Asia and Africa. Once again, the distinction is one of scale rather than of type. Every country is developing or retrogressing, and accounting has its task to fulfil in that growth in all of them. Majority
Posted by Eddie Diaz at 7:42 AM
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Make one up - Essay Example The red winged black birds are categorized as generalist birds because they can adapt to a different environment. The red winged blackbirds are found in Southern Alaska, Yucatan peninsula, Canada, and California. The birds keep migrating to various parts of the continent depending on the season. During winter, the birds migrate to southern and central parts of United States. They inhabit open grassy areas such as wetlands. They also inhabit saltwater and fresh water marshes especially if cattail is present Great Blue Heron The Great Blue Heron species have characteristics that make them categorized as specialists. It is among the large wading birds in the Heron family. Great Blue Herons have distinct features such as reddish brown thighs, light feathers, and grey rusty neck. They have long green legs with the males having a puffy trail of feathers behind the head. The males are lighter than the female. The birds are rare to find and do not easily adapt to new ecosystems (Peterson, 20 10). Unlike the other birds, Great Blue Heron fish for food during the day and at night. They like doing most of their activities early in the morning and at dusk. The birds feed on fish, salamanders, snakes, frogs, among other aquatic insects. Herons swallow their food as whole after they catch them. The birds cannot feed on other food apart from aquatic food, which is a characteristic of specialist. They have unique behavior since most of the activities are either done in the morning or at dusk. The herons are said to be private, and never hunt in groups. However, during breeding, the birds do so in groups. When not hunting, the birds sleep in a flock of about one hundred. The birds are extremely territorial and always defend their nests. American Dipper The American Dippers are specialists. It is a thick dark, gray bird with some having a brown head and white feathers on the eyelids. The white eyelids cause the eyes to flash white as they blink. Both male and the female look alik e. They have short tails that are often raised up. American Dipper feeds on insects and their larvae, small fish and fish eggs. They look for food in water or at times over turn a rock to expose the prey. In order for them to survive in such conditions, the birds have lots of feathers, slow metabolism and the ability to carry oxygen for a long time. The birds prefer living on rocky and unpolluted streams. Cliffs on the stream or bridges help them build nests. However, the birds prefer to build their nests on mountainous streams. This is a characteristic of specialist species. They can survive on cold climate and can eat only insects on land and fish (Ross, 2011). American Robin American Robin can live on the road, and in the forest which is a characteristic of generalist. The type of birds can survive in both cold and hot climate which is another characteristic of a generalist. The bird is a member of the thrush family and the name American Robin came about because the bird resemble s a similar bird in Great Britain. Most of them feed on berries, worms, insects and larva. Most of them are seen looking for worms which they take to their young ones. American Robins live in forests, urban areas, and on road sides. The birds can survive in different ecosystems (Ralph, Sauer, & Droege, 2012). Snail Kite Snail Kites are specialist since one can only get them in three areas; they have specific food and living in specific places means that they
Posted by Eddie Diaz at 11:47 AM
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
History of Cities and their Architecture Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words
History of Cities and their Architecture - Essay Example Philip Johnson developed one of the chairs for his collection. Mies van der Rohe designed Barcelona Pavilion, which was developed from German Pavilion, during international exposition that was in Barcelona Spain. It was constructed with the aim of demonstrating modern movement of architecture of the world (Curtis, 2008). The building was originally named a Germany pavilion, as it was the expression of Germany after the First World War to indicate the culture of the country that is still rooted in the classical history. The pavilion was built with an aim of hosting King Alphonso XIII of Spain and officials from Germany during the time of exposition (Curtis, 2008). As compared to other buildings at the exposition, Mies understood that work he did as just a building and he did not aim in housing art or any sculpture. The building was just designed to place tranquility and escape from exposition, which was then to transform the pavilion into an inhabitable statue. By raising the pavilion on a plinth in conjunction with the narrow profile of the site, the Barcelona Pavilion has a low horizontal orientation that is accentuated by the low flat roof that appears to float over both the interior as well as the exterior. The furniture of the building also exhibits the duality of modernism and classicism. The now iconic Barcelona chair and ottoman were designed specifically for the Barcelona Pavilion. The Barcelona building served as a reception place for the King and Queen of Spain. After the exhibition in which the pavilion intended was closed, the resembling of the pavilion was in 1930. As time went, the pavilion became a key point not only to Mies but also to other architectures that operated in the 20th century. In 1980, there was setting of project by Oriol Bohigas who was the head of planning department to ensure that there was
Posted by Eddie Diaz at 10:38 AM
Monday, September 23, 2019
Knowledge and theory are embedded across the study of accounting - Essay Example Secondly, the concept of accounting is also defined as a strong social dynamism, which substantially helps organisations to build strong sustainability by delivering transparent view of the financial records to the societies, organisations and people surrounding to it (Kennedy, 2011). In relation to the continuous evolution of accounting theories and practice guidelines, organisations in the present globalised business environment are highly focused on complying with a specific set of accounting principles in order to conserve reliability and validity of the financial records (Kennedy, 2011). Therefore, with this concern, the essay intends to critically explore the statement Ã¢â¬Å"Knowledge and theory are embedded across the study of accounting.Ã¢â¬ The discussion of the essay reveals few of the major accounting theories and principles employed by the organisations in the contemporary business phenomenon. Over the years, scholars have been intrigued by different concepts and disciplines and have been engaged in expressing their views in the form of study. In this regard, several scholars have contributed their efforts towards the study of accounting. These studies are considered to be of prime importance for myriad reasons. In addition, the study related to accounting has been considered as an attempt towards explaining the various reasons and logic behind certain accounting practices. The studies are further considered to be extremely important as the accounting standards are framed and developed with reference to these studies. The study on accounting involves sound reasoning of various practices as well as it deals with the examination of pros and cons in accounting practices. The importance of the study of accounting can be thus related with the effectiveness of the current accounting standards and guiding principles espoused by the
Posted by Eddie Diaz at 9:30 AM
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Greek tragedies Essay Explore how Arthur Miller develops the character of Eddie Carbone in three key episodes in A View from the Bridge Arthur Miller worked on the Brooklyn docks amongst many longshoremen and dockers such as Eddie Carbone. Working on the docks was a significant time in Arthur Millers life because thats where he met Italian American immigrants which inspired him to write A View from the Bridge. Arthur Miller creates Eddie Carbones character like a Modern Greek Tragic hero because when the play starts the audience respects and admires his character. He is loving to his wife and protective of his niece. But as the play continues you start to see the real Eddie Carbone unfold. The audiences first impression of Eddie Carbone is a very honourable person who has pride in his niece. He is quite concerned about her sexuality, for example he says to her your walkin wavy and heads are turning like windmills. He is concerned because he wants to protect Catherine and feels that she is sexually vulnerable. Eddie also demonstrates concern for his wife. He says that she has too big a heart. The audience would be quite impressed with his sense of responsibility. Moreover Eddie seems very keen to help the fellow Italians on their arrival. He insists that they behave very discreetly for example when he is describing to Catherine and Beatrice the dangers of holding illegal immigrants he says You dont know nothing! They got stool pigeons all over this neighbourhood. By saying this, the audience would probably think he is very loyal. However, Eddie can be seen to reveal a frailty in his character very early on. He clearly shows some paranoia and over-protectiveness for his niece. You can tell this when he complains to her why didnt you ask me before you got a job. Eddie is asking for too much control over Catherine. Like a tragic hero, he is honourable but there is something unsettling about his character. Also his reaction after Catherine lights his cigar could interpret this over-protectiveness he shows for her could in fact be a disturbing feature in his character. We can see character and weaknesses unfolding at the end of Act One. Eddie Carbones character at the end of Act One becomes more open about his hatred for Rodolpho. He demonstrates his lack of control over his emotions, also starts to act sarcastically and mockingly for example, he says I know lemons are green for Christs sake. Arguing with Rodolpho and resenting his comments shows his desire to provoke conflict. He also mocks Rodolpho about his femininity. He announces to everyone if I could sing, I wouldnt be on the water front, I would be in a dress store. He is trying to make Catherine think twice about Rodolphos sexuality. In doing so, he is also asserting his own masculinity in an attempt to warn off others and impress Catherine. In this scene Eddie is beginning to feel quite powerless in his own house since Marco and Rodolphos arrival. He has lost control over Catherine, which considering his obsessive protectiveness he cannot bear. The last scene of Act One Miller also establishes a very dramatic atmosphere. Because of Eddies increasingly frenzied personality it makes the other characters wary of him, for example he keeps on repeating himself which could be a sign of madness his psychological breakdown. It unsettles and alarms the other characters. We have a constant sense that he is volatile and unpredictable. Furthermore, when Marco raises the chair like a weapon above his head Miller symbolises Eddies loss of power and control. It is clear that another man has entered his house and beaten him at his own game. At the start of Act Two you can clearly see how Miller has chosen to develop Eddies flaws. He portrays Eddies hatred for Rodolpho as he says to Catherine that she cannot leave the apartment with that indicating Rodolpho. Referring to Rodolpho as that implies that he thinks he is superior to Rodolpho just because hes an illegal Immigrant. Furthermore, the use of the word that suggests he is only a detestable object. Eddie also says watch your step submarine. By rights they oughta throw you back in the water. This is a direct threat towards Rodolpho that he might inform the Immigration Bureau of his illegal entry into the country. It is also an assertion of his power over Rodolpho. Eddies attempts to humiliate Rodolpho fail thoroughly when he kisses him. Eddie pins his arms laughing and suddenly kisses him. Eddie thinks by emasculating Rodolpho, Catherine can see what Eddie is seeing, but all shes can see is that Eddie has lost control of himself under the influence of alcohol and pitiful repressed feelings. His actions in this scene suggest he is far from the respectable individual he was at the start. Moreover, he becomes quite pathetic in the eyes of the audience. However we interpretate the kiss, whether he is demonstrating repressed homosexuality, insecure masculinity or just immaturity and drunkenness, the audience think less of him. Moreover, the other characters must be really shocked by Eddies ghastly behaviour. He sits, still panting for breath, and they watch him helplessly. This suggests that they are confused and worried by his outburst. At this moment in time the sympathy from the audience for Eddie would have been washed away since the start of the play. Now the audience would be more sympathetic for Catherine because it looks as if shes being imprisoned and controlled. You can tell this when she says to Rodolpho suppose I wanted to live in Italy. She is trying to get as far as possible from Eddie. The stage direction as she strives to free herself is symbol of her of her imprisonment. The start of Act One is also the first time the audience realise that Eddies obsession for Catherine is actually sexual. You can tell this when Eddie comes home drunk he sees Catherine come out of the bedroom adjusting her skirt and then Rodolpho walks out behind her. As soon as Eddie realises what they were doing he slightly jerks his arms, it shows what he now understands is unbearable to him. In conclusion, Arthur Miller could have developed Eddies character for a didactic purpose. Most Greek tragedies have a didactic purpose to show the audience to never reveal our deepest desires and to maintain our composure. You can tell that Eddie could be a didactic figure because in Alfieris last speech he states most of the time now we settle for half. He could be saying that Eddie was asking for too much from Catherine, but Alfieri could mean that we shouldnt ask for too much when we cant be satisfied so we should just settle for half. However, in Greek tragedies the tragic hero commits an offence and is supposed to learn from his mistake but still suffers from it, therefore moral order is restored. In the last scene this was very strongly portrayed, as it was his own knife, in his own hands that was plunged into his chest. This shows that all the things he done wrong was of his own doing.
Posted by Eddie Diaz at 8:21 AM
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Assessment of a students personal learning style Any educational course is always commenced with some expectations and hopes to achieve some specific goals. These expectations and hopes are always contingent to some estimation as well as some strategic plans to achieve the set goals. In this essay I will endeavour to write a personal reflection on what I have learned upon completing the course .This will include some assessment of my personal learning style and strengths and weaknesses, an estimated work plan for my completion of the degree, and the strategy I will intend to adopt for future essay writing. This will be a useful document to help me through the course as well as an important part of my assessment. These expectations with reference to their strategic planning for the accomplishment of the course are as follows: My expectations before the commencement of the B.Th. course at SLCC. A new learning experience in London (SLCC). Exploration of learning potentials and weakness. Evaluation of my strengths and weakness to improve the mistakes and shortcomings. The Assessment to judge my achievement and future planning to complete my degree at a specific determined time. MY EXPECTATIONS AND THE NEW LEARNING EXPERIENCE: It was expected by me that I would be supposed to go through the written examinations as is instructed in my home country, Pakistan. I was unaware of the enhanced research study at UK because I never researched before even at my Master degree level studies rather went through a specific syllabus and examination system. I also thought to be prepared for the examination by cramming the things in contrast to be creative minded person as I am now. Learning through visual aids like movies that are being shown by Mercia time to time and use of PowerPoint in the seminars are very innovative and a new things to learn for me. These things left a permanent impression on my memory as is also said that show and tell is a good way of teaching and one learns a lot through hearing and seeing. Seminars that are held on some occasions are also a good source of education as they just bring a slight change in ones regular monotonous routine of learning work. Apart from this change, they also provide a chance to learn a very comprehensive and lengthy topic within a short period of time. These seminars are also a unique experience for me as they informed me about the things happening on an international level for instance persecution of the Christian throughout the world came to my knowledge at SLCC in contrast to my previous knowledge of persecution that was only limited to the Bible. Discussion on some topic is a best way of learning as compared to learning alone because in a group discussion different opinions and ideas are shared that bring out the best possible answer of the faced issue. In addition, question answer method of study at SLCC also brought confidence in me to further explore and polish my hidden talents. I never had any idea to cope with an atmosphere where essays are written by using libraries and internet because I was not good at internet and never used any library before coming to SLCC. Therefore, usage and utilization of library and the Internet created in me a sense of curiosity for more and more as well as correct knowledge. EXPLORATION OF MY POTENTIALS AND WEAKNESSES:- I was accustomed to read books as opposed to e-learning or learning by internet as far as my study is concerned. A poor knowledge of computer and internet kept me away from using an internet but it is now hoped that I will be used to it very soon in my next two years. The Subject of theology was limited to biblical doctrines only but an interaction with a multicultural environment at SLCC gave me a good opportunity to learn theology at a broad canvas; for some African countries laid more emphasis on stereology contrary to the Christology. If I had not been here I would have not known that I could write and speak English correctly, in fact I developed my English writing skills here. A well-organized and well-scheduled study system revealed as well as enhanced my strengths as a student as I will be adapted to this system to read as many books as possibly I can. Especially, the course of research and study skills has been proved the best source to create convenience for study as well as essay writing. This course guided me to improve my study skills to a great extent. It is said that travelling is a part of ones education. Local tour of London and international tours especially of Israel is a long lasting educational experience for me as a student of theology to learn the Christian geographical boundaries. Previously I was not well-disciplined and always waited for last moments to prepare and complete my study tasks but now I am disciplined enough to meet even the tight deadlines whether they are inside or outside of my study spheres. THE ASSESSMENT AND FUTURE PLANNING:- Generally, an annual and particularly a weekly assessment of my achievements is required in order to be accountable to myself to see whether I achieve my set targets or not. This assessment includes my educational as well monetary obligations to the degree. I am being benefited by a well-read faculty of SLCC to be imparted with correct Biblical and theological knowledge to be enabled to write my assignments. I am intended to avail all the available sources such as books, the Internet, movies and journals to present a good academic and scholarly work to get appreciable results in future. I am supposed to complete a minimum one essay in a week in order to complete my degree on time. Therefore, keeping in mind this tight and tough routine of essay writing I am determined to be regular and punctual in attendance to clarify my concepts about theology so that I will be able to reproduce my essays easily. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that completion of first year of B.Th. at SLCC as was expected and desired by me, had been a wonderful academic and spiritual experience for me as it highlighted hidden qualities and talents in me. Therefore I could explore my talents to improve my academic career. Evaluations of my weakness and strengths as a student further stimulated me to improve my shortcomings of poor knowledge of research and computer utilization and use my previous good knowledge and skills of English for the attainment of my targets. The successful completion of first year has infused in me a marvelous spirit to make a strategic plan of my regular assessment and accountability on weekly, monthly, mid-termly, mid-annually and annually basis for the further achievement of my aims as far as my next two years are concerned. Briefly, the study at a degree level is a well-planned and career-shaping study. A Study at a degree level is not merely degree-oriented rather it is a well-researched and knowledge-oriented study which actually develops a ones character as well shapes ones destination.
Posted by Eddie Diaz at 7:09 AM
Friday, September 20, 2019
State Civil Society Relationship Social Work Essay The concept of civil society remains elusive, complex and contested. There are different meanings and interpretations and, over time, different schools of thought have influenced theoretical debates and empirical research. Civil society is conceived to be an arena of un-coerced collective action around shared interests, purposes and values. As a public sphere where citizens and voluntary organizations freely engage, it is distinct from the state, family and the market. From the above conceptions of civil society, they can therefore be considered as the wide array of non-governmental and non-profit organizations that have a presence in public life, expressing the interests and values of their members or others, based on ethical, cultural, political, science, religious or philanthropic considerations (World Bank 2006, Kaldor 2003, Carothers 2000). The concept has its origin from the Greek philosophy though some scholars consent that its origin dates back in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (Kaldor 2003, John et al., 1999) Civil society also has been centrally linked to theÃ contemporary status ofÃ democracy andÃ change in the world.Ã It has been presented as the beacon of freedom, the fountain for the protection of civil rights and of resistance against state repression, the mobilizing platform of society for the protection and projection of substantive interests, the compelling force for state moderation and the epitome of popular struggles and civil power has been a central force in political and economic reforms. The activities and even proliferation of civil groups have been seen by several scholars as vital to the democratization process and its sustenance. Donor discourse on international development policy now places much emphasis on civil society than in the past. Therefore it would be worthy to note that in practical sense, the boundaries between state, civil society and even market can hardly be defined or drawn (Kane, 2001, Camarrof, 1999, John et al., 1999, Salamon and Anheier 1996). Hyden (1995)Ã further clarifies on the concept byÃ emphasizing that there are variables that determine civil society, these include: basis of social action, nature of state action, nature of political legacy and nature of inter-cultural relations. But above all these, from myriad studies conducted, it is clear that the middle class has on large extent paved the way for civil society especially in fostering democracy. 1.1 Objective The purpose of this research is to understand reality of civil society in Uganda in relation to the theoretical concept of civil society and to go deep to understand the bilateral functions of civil society in Uganda. This study may be of great use to the policy makers, civil society actors, legislators and researchers who might be more enlightened about civil society in Uganda. In doing so the study will be contributing to the board of knowledge about civil society in Uganda. 1.2 Disposition This thesis will be organized as follows; the subsequent chapter (two) will present methodology used in this study. Chapter three will present conceptual framework. This will include definitions and the concept of civil society that I consider to be crucial for this study. Chapter four will be about civil society reality in Uganda. Chapter five will be about data presentation and analysis. 1.3 Problem Statement The past two decades have witnessed a proliferation of civil society organisations and they have made big strides towards improving the interplay between political and economic systems and thus have ensured democratic, participatory and decision making in society (World Bank 2006). NORAD (2003), UN-RISD (2005) present state, private sector and civil society as three separate arenas of development that operate independently from each other. Civil society has been well acknowledged as an important third sector whose strengths have positively influenced state and market and it is an important agent for promoting transparency, responsibility, accountability and openness. Civil society model recognizesÃ functions that are believed to be universally applied in all societies and according to Edwards 2004, World Bank 2003, SIDA 2005, the core functions of civil society include: to protect the citizens lives, property and freedoms; monitoring activities of state, central powers and state a pparatus; advocacy through articulation of interests of the citizens; socialization through practicing values and attitudes of democracy; intermediation and facilitation between state and citizens; building communities through voluntary interactions that build a bond between members of the society and service delivery in social service sector. Despite its increased importance and value, civil society in developing world has lingered behind and somewhat not understood. In Uganda, the basic descriptive information about civil society, its size, area of activity, sources of revenue and the policy framework in which it operates seem not to be available in an organized way. There seems to be domination of state and market while civil society structures are superficial and are shadows of the ideal model of civil society (Salamon, Sokolowski and Associates, 2003). Moreover, civil society tend to play a supportive role rather than confrontational or conscious raising roles. A report by NORAD (2002) indicates that the involvement of civil society in policy processes is cosmetic with limited impacts in Ugandan society. Therefore the actual situation about civil society in Uganda seems not to be according to ideal model of civil society in western societies. The point of departure in this study is to investigate and compare civil society reality in Uganda to the ideal concept of civil society in developed, modern and democratic societies while also trying to understand why the bilateral function of civil society in Uganda seem not to work properly. The purpose of the study therefore, is to investigate, understand and eliminate this discrepancy and comprehend the bilateral functioning of the civil society in Uganda with subsequent benefits derived from it. 1.4 StudyObjectives The general aim of the study is to investigate the reality of civil society in Uganda in relation to the general concept of civil society. There are a number of specific objectives, these include: To identify major areas of operation by civil society in Uganda. To identify the major actors of civil society in Uganda. To identify functions of civil society To find out factors that influence State-CSOs relationship in area of advocacy. To determine whether the Western models of CSOs are applicable in Uganda. Research questions How applicable is the western model of civil society in Ugandas context? How is the relationship between state and CSOs in Uganda? In what areas of operation are CSOs active in Uganda? Who are the major actors of civil society in Uganda? What are the factors that influence the relationship between state and civil society in policy advocacy in Uganda? What are the functions of civil society in Uganda 1.5 Research Frontier The thesis aims at filling an apparent gap that exists since most studies have primarily focused on other areas of civil society like the relationship with political parties, civil society in conflict resolution and in poverty alleviation but little has been written on the civil society reality in Uganda with reference to the model concept of civil society. 1.6 Significance of the study The study will contribute to the board of knowledge. It will be used as a literature for the future studies related to civil society and state in Uganda. The study findings can also be used to harmonize the relationship between state and civil society so that they can work for the benefit of citizens in the country. 1.7 Structure This thesis will consist of 6 chapters. Chapter 1 will be about Introduction of the study. Chapter 2 will include conceptual framework while Chapter 3 will be about Literature review. Chapter 4 will consist of Methodology and chapter 5 will be on Data analysis and results. The last Chapter 6 will consist of Conclusions and Recommendations. CHAPTER TWO 2.0 Methodology of the Study This chapter is about the methods that have been used in this study and explains the approaches that will be used in order to understand civil society reality in Uganda in relation to the model of the concept in the western democratic societies. 2.1 Methods This is a qualitative study primarily based on desk research of available documentations about civil society as well as few interviews from the civil society actors in Uganda. The method used for this study has some advantages and disadvantages. Advantages include: it saves time that would otherwise have been spent on collecting data. It provided a broad data base more than what one can collect. Secondary data also provided the basis for comparisons of the information about civil society in Uganda with the model concept of civil society in the western societies. Lastly, the author did not worry about the informed consent and human subject restrictions and the method is relatively cheap. Much as the benefits of secondary sources are considerable, their disadvantages are also identified. There was likelihood of having outdated data. The author had no control over how the data was collected. There may be biases in the data that was already collected by researchers. In order to ensure reliability and validity of the study, many comparisons between the data were made. This involved checking other sources such as other references and information from highly regarded sites on the internet for instance from World Bank, donor agencies, universities among others. The information used was in line with what was collected from other sources. The information is also reliable in a way that it was collected from government documents and other sites mentioned above. The information was valid since the findings relate to the issues and aim of the study. 2.2 Type of study-Case study A case of Uganda will be used. Goerge and Bennet 2005:18 define case study Ã¢â¬Å"as well-defined aspect of a historical episode that an investigator selects for analysis, rather than a historical event itselfÃ¢â¬ . Case study is one of the several methods used in conducting studies in the area of social science, psychology, political science and it has the following advantages: It will be used in this study because of its high possibility or ability to achieve high conceptual validity. In other words, the researcher is able to compare, measure and identify which indicators best correspond to the concept.Ã It has also been chosen because it helps to understand a variety of intervening variables and makes it possible to single out conditions in a case that trigger out causal mechanisms. However, case study method has a weakness of selection bias. In other words, there is a possibility of overstating or understating the relationship between independent and dependent variables (ibid) 2.3 Data collection The nature of the study requires drawing lessons from multiple sources. Therefore, in undertaking this, it is proposed that a wide range of data collection methods should be used, both primary and secondary sources of data. The methods will capture qualitative data. The method will provide flexibility in data collection through triangulation of different research methods. This approach will also assist in cross checking information. 2.4 Primary Sources of Data Different stakeholders will be targeted since they are able to provide valuable insights on various issues of the interest of the study. Among the specific methods that will be used to collect primary data will include: Semi-Structured Interviews Semi-structured interviews will be used with key informants in Uganda such as Civil Society actors. Interviews in this regards will be very helpful as they will deal with more detailed perceptions and experiences. The researcher intends to have deep and rich interaction with key informants in order to understand various issues pertaining to the various opportunities and challenges that Civil Society Organizations face. In all cases, confidentiality of sources of information will be ensured to allow for discussion of more sensitive issues. 2.5 Secondary Sources of Data Relevant literature pertaining to issues under investigation will be collected from the various sources including government documents about CSO and official reports from various sources, including published books, journals, and other relevant materials will be consulted. Internet resources shall also be used to access relevant information as well. Combining various methods of collecting data will enrich the whole study as each method of collecting data will capture a specific angle of the issue in consideration. Furthermore, different methods tend to have weaknesses when used in isolation, so combining various approaches will enhance chances of getting more reliable information upon which inferences will be drawn. 2.6 Sampling procedure A non probability sampling strategy will be used, that is, Purposive sampling. This type of sampling will be used because it is helpful in targeting and getting views from those people who are perceived to be well vested with issues of civil society and policy advocacy in particular. 2.7 Data Analysis Qualitative data from semi-structured interviews will be analyzed using qualitative techniques such as thematic analysis. This will be used because it is highly inductive and will help in understanding more about civil society in Uganda.Ã Another advantage is that the researcher does not impose themes but rather themes are generated from the data. 2.8 Secondary and content analysis Secondary analyses in this case regard to the studies that are taken from historical data as well as informational materials that exist beforehand but analyzed by other researchers which can be used as sources for new research or study under investigation (Goerge and Bennet, 2005). This will be used in this study on civil society in Uganda in relation to the model of concept of civil society in developed world. 2.9 Content analysis This is another approach if used properly enables research problems to be identified both qualitatively and quantitatively. Three basic requirements used in this method include. First, the author should be objective, in other words he/she should not follow their instincts or the way they see materials but should follow an objective approach of representing the materials. In this study this will be followed and done. Second, is the exclusion and inclusion of the content. This implies that the author in some cases has to include or exclude some contents much as it can be useful or useless for the study (Mikkelsen, 2005). This has also been applied in this study in order to ensure coherence. 2.10 Materials used Materials used in this study were obtained from already published books, articles and journals. Additional materials were obtained through the internet via various data bases that include: ELIN, LIBRIS, Google scholar. Official government websites were also used as well as other reputable sources like official website of the United Nations, World Bank, academic institutions and think tank organisations were also used. Other relevant information about civil society in Uganda was obtained from the news paper publications of The New Vision, The Daily Monitor and The Weekly Observer and bulletins from civil society organisations in Uganda. 2.10.1 Evaluation of the sources When dealing with sources which normally present different views from different authors, it is important to remain unbiased while using them as the source of information for the study but students normally find it very difficult to deal with. In order to evaluate the sources this study will base on the set of methodological rules of simultaneity, genuineness, independence and tendency. 2.11 Previous Studies on Civil Society Several studies have been conducted and many authors have written a lot about civil society. Kaldor Mary (2003) a school professor on Global civil society at London School of Economics in her article Ã¢â¬Å"Civil Society and AccountabilityÃ¢â¬ highlights the issue of trusting civil society groups in regard to giving the voice to the marginalized. She further sheds more light about moral accountability and procedural accountability referring civil society groups being accountable to the people they serve and accountability as internal management respectively. She finally elaborates on difference between Non-Governmental Organisations and civil society by indicating that the former is a subset of the latter. John Keane, a re-known scholar and a Professor of Politics at the Center for Study of Democracy, university of Westminister. He has published many books and articles on civil society, democracy and politics. He has collected myriad samples about what writers have produced on the subject of civil society especially writers in Europe. In one of his books Ã¢â¬Å"Civil Society and the State, New European perspectiveÃ¢â¬ . He clarifies on distinction between state and non-state realm of civil society. He further coins out why the distinction which was important in the first half of nineteen century but later lost trace (Keane, 1988). Hyden GÃ ¶ran a professor of political science at the University of Florida. He has published a lot on governance, politics and civil society. In one of his books Ã¢â¬Å"Assisting the growth of civil society. How might it be improved?Ã¢â¬ he analyses various literatures on civil society and supports the idea that civil society is an important tool that has been directed at promoting democracy in societies which are under dictatorial regimes. He further points out that in many cases external support is meant to complement the efforts of transition from despotic rule, but rather, the strengths of civil society depend on the domestic social forces of a certain country (Hyden, 1995). A study conducted by World Bank, (2006) elaborates that increase in conflicts in 1990s contributed to a focus on civil society as key actors in peace building initiatives and hugely contributed to massive increase of civil society sector. The study also points out that the presence of civil society does not simply result to peace building, but rather, proper understanding and analysis of civil society functions, validity, scope and content are paramount to peace building initiatives. CHAPTER THREE Conceptual Framework of Civil Society 3.1 Defining Civil Society Different scholars define civil society differently. Some scholars define it broadly while others define it in specific or narrow terms. For instance Carothers (2000), Kaldor (2003) define it in specific terms as Ã¢â¬Å"a domain parallel to but separate from the state realm where citizens associate according to their own interests and wishesÃ¢â¬ (Carothers, 2000:1) and Kaldor, (2003) defines it as an associational sphere between state and family aggregated by organisations which are detached from the state and they are formed by society members voluntarily to guard and preserve their values and interests. From the above definitions, there is a common thread in which all authors depict civil society as autonomous from state and market. Further, there seems to be a consensus among the definitions on the term civil society signifying that it is an arena or sphere made up of different or a collection of groups amalgamated together with the a common shared purpose, values or interests. Is this amalgamation of different groups harmonious? It seemly unlikely to have a harmonious relationship between these groups because they have different interests, values and their social fabric is totally different. Therefore to belong to one sphere or dome and have same reasoning, tolerance among each other and advance one goal as civil society sector might remain a myth not a reality. However, some scholars define civil society broadly to mean that it goes beyond being an arena between state and family. For instance Centre for Civil Society goes further to mean that civil society does not only mean a sphere outside state and market but even its boundaries in between them can never be drawn and therefore very ambiguous and Shauder et al., (2003) portray it as an all-inclusive term often used to mean social structures and interests further than household and outside the state institutions, including voluntary associations and non-profit organizations where people mingle for their collective interests. It would be argued that by making civil society all-inclusive like what Shauder et al argues above, renders it more ambiguous because like it was earlier argued, merging different groups of different backgrounds clearly makes civil society mysterious concept. There is another category of scholars who define civil society in a broad way for instance Cohen and Arato (1992), Michael and Edwards (1996:1) look at civil society as not only a sphere of charitable links and informal networks in which groups and individuals come together to participate in activities of public importance but also is a realm of private voluntary association, from neighbourhood committees to interest groups and philanthropic enterprises of all sorts. According to the definitions above, civil society is consented as a set of voluntary and not-for-profits associations sharing same interests. This is not far from what has been defined by afore mentioned authors but the difference here is that Shauder et al broaden the definition to imply that civil society goes beyond household and state while Cohen and Arato include an aspect of Ã¢â¬Å"charitable linksÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"informal networksÃ¢â¬ to the definition, to some scholars it is a mixture of formal and informal and perhaps that why its boundaries are unclear. These links and networks as commonly known are horizontal linkages/networks and vertical linkages, that is, a connection of groups in a same category and connection of groups in different categories respectively. These different points of view clearly depict the term civil society to be an imperceptible concept which many social scientist have come up to conclude that it has no universal definition and therefore difficu lt explain due to its vagueness. It becomes different from what Parnini (2006:4) defines it as the Ã¢â¬Å"totality of groups and individuals in a country who show a regular concern for the social and political affairs in that country without fulfilling the function of political partiesÃ¢â¬ . Closely related, in his writing, Hyden, (1995:3) defines civil society as Ã¢â¬Å"the political realm, specifically the means and processes through which citizens shape the character of political life in their countryÃ¢â¬ . All the definitions above portray civil society as a sphere made up of myriad individual groups and associations, but other scholars like Hyden bring in an aspect to show that civil society is a Ã¢â¬Ëpolitical realm which becomes quite different from what other scholars or authors who believe that civil society isÃ rather public or social realm. This sparks further debates; hence the term has become a centre of both political and academic discourses all over the world. It becomes an elusive term because what Parnini explains above signify that civil society cares more about what government should do to suit the interests of citizens but does not play the role of political parties, yet to some scholars, political parties are part of civil society and if anything there are some civil society actors which play the same roles as political parties; a case in point is the role of mobilizing citizenry. This role is played by actors like church, community based organisations or even non -governmental organisations. The working definition for this study is thatcivil society is an amalgamation of both human and associational activities that operate in a non-restrictive, open to everyone sphere without involvement of the state and market. It is a dome where people express their interests and ambitions but with pull factors based on common goal, values and customs. 3.2 The Evolution of Civil Society concept The contemporary term Ã¢â¬Ëcivil society has its origins in the early modern period in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, however, Kaldor (2003), points out that the term has its origin from Greek political philosophy. This is not far from what John and Comaroff (1999) noted that the term became prominent in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries in the period of modern European state formation, when it was used and explained by Ferguson, Kant, Hegel, Marx and Tocqueville. It is further argued that apart from being used by Gramsci, however, it did not thereafter dominate western political theory until recently (ibid). Kaldor (2003) further indicates that it has been narrowed in 20th century into forms of social contacts that are separate from both the state and market. There is a commonality in which different authors above perceive the genesis of civil society. This implies that the concept itself was in existence though dormant before seventeen and eighteen centuries but civil society activism became prominent at a point in Europe when most societies sought to have a modern state. Thus modern state formation phenomenon in Europe was envisaged to have a civil society which would play an important supportive role in fostering democracy as part of the means of transforming societies from authoritarian rule. What should be known at this point is that civil society was brought in as one of the ingredients for democracy just as Hyden (1995) clarifies that civil society was a vital step towards the direction or realization of modern and democratic society. The most recent usage the concept of civil society has been distinguished into three versions: the Ã¢â¬Ëactivist version which emerged in 1970s and 1980s especially in Latin America and Eastern Europe which referred to the idea of a area outside political parties where individuals and groups aimed to democratize the state, to restructure power, rather than to capture authority in a traditional sense (Kaldor 2003). It is imperative to note that different versions were perceived differently by different scholars. In the first version (activist), the situation in Latin America and Eastern Europe compelled the need for civil society because there were military dictatorial regimes and totalitarian communist rule respectively. It seems the term was dubbed Ã¢â¬Ëactivist because it was quiet hard for the common people to change governments in these regions, so what people did was to devise means of removing the government through formation of active groups independent of state which woul d change the relationship between state and societies (ibid) The Ã¢â¬Ëneo-liberal version which Salamon and Anheier (1996) argue, is connected with views of Ã¢â¬Ëthird sector or Ã¢â¬Ënon-profit sector that was developed in the United States where there are groups or associations that were not controlled by the state or even the market, but were important with potential of facilitating the operation of both. It is argued that this version was taken up by Western donors in the early 1990s because CSOs were needed to mitigate against the shocks associated with Structural Adjustment Programmes, to provide social safety net and foster good governance. It should be remembered that when SAPs were introduced by Bretton Woods institutions, governments were forced to cut on spending on public services, in so doing, civil society was to come in and bridge that gap as well as help in fostering good governance. In comparison with the first or Ã¢â¬Ëactivist version, it is observed that in the neo-liberal version came with the element of minimizing the role of state by checking the abuses and practices of the state just like what Kaldor had earlier alone argued, this version is linked with the ideas of social capital and trust of Robert Putman and Francis Fukuyama respectively. This differs from the first version of Ã¢â¬Ëactivist in Latin America which mainly hinges on conscientization of the poor and breaking the culture of silenceÃ Ã the ideas of Gramsci and the inspiration of liberation theory. The overall difference between these two versions seems to be that neo-liberal version has an element of endorsing the western way of governance just as Salamon and Anheier had earlier indicated that it was developed in United States; while the activist version aims at emancipation and enhancement of human rights and justice but both have a commonality of being western-driven. The above versions are in contrast with the third version of civil society Ã¢â¬Ëthe post modern which asserts that the Ã¢â¬Ëactivist and Ã¢â¬Ëneo-liberal versions are a Western discourse. Post-modern version criticizes activist and neo-liberal versions because there is exclusion of civil society actors like religious groupings and organisations which are based on kinship, they are sidelined and considered as traditional, that is why John and Comarrof (1999) clarify on this by arguing that there should not be Ã¢â¬Ëgood westernized civil society and bad traditional un-civil society. Therefore, here, we should ask ourselves, is there bad and good civil society? The answer is no and yes, but in order to be rational, the definition should include all the categories mentioned in the activist version (social movements), neo-liberal version (third sector) and post-modern version (traditional and religious groups). The western concept of civil society has largely strayed from its original meaning and role where NGOs are considered as the same as civil society. The terms Ã¢â¬Ëcivil society, Ã¢â¬ËNGOs and the Ã¢â¬Ënon-profit sector have been regarded as the same by western donors since the early 1990s (Parnini, 2006:4). However, it can be argued that a full understanding of civil society has more than what NGOs does because civil society is a public sphere where non-state actors are mingled together. It has to include social movements that promote emancipation of poor and excluded, it has to include social organisations that protect and promote the interests of members, and it has to include nationalist and religious groups that foster empowerment of national and religious groups respectively. Therefore, it is rather a combination of all these actors that a coherent and robust collection can act together in order to bring transformation in society. Nevertheless, Kane (2001) observes, civil society can be fostered through taking part in participatory activities Ã¢â¬Ëthrough grassroots organisations, through se
Posted by Eddie Diaz at 6:32 AM
Thursday, September 19, 2019
What would make a group people hate the U.S. so much that they would commit the terrible acts of Sept. 11. Killing thousands of innocent people and taking away the hopes and dreams of many. Some of this Anti-American sentiment begins with our long alliance with Israel. Israel and the Arab nations have been at war for many, many years. The war and resentment between these two sides begins with a strip of land called the Gaza Strip. This piece of land has been fought over for decades. So because of our alliance with Israel most of the Middle East see it as siding with their most hated enemy! I also believe that some of our have come back to haunt the U.S. One example of this would be our support of the Shah of Iran from 1966-1979. The U.S. supported the Shah even though, the people of Iran hated him and felt that he was corrupt. So that led way to the overthrow of the Shah and his government and the rule of the Ayatollah Khomeni. The new leader had a deep hatred of the U.S.and led a new anti-American sentiment in Iran. Our next ally would be Saddem Hueseein, who at the time was enemies with Iran. So the U.S. made an ally of Saddem and supplied him with billions of dollars of economic aid. Which he used to primarily build up his military forces and with that military Saddem attacked a helpless Kuwait. Saddem destroyed much of Kuwait and the ensuing war between Iraq and the Coalition forces was on. When the U.S. allied themselves with the Mujahedin army during the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, who knew that Osama Bin Laden and others who fought in that war would wind up becoming the evil Taliban. It seems that U.S. policy is one of, if you are enemies of our enemies then you are our ally. I think that America should take a step back and take a long hard look at that region of
Posted by Eddie Diaz at 7:53 AM
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Music was used as a critical instrument in the early 20th century in mobilizing and inspiring the civil rights movement by giving them more voice to bring out their grievances. According to Kerk (2007, p.18) Martin Luther king was the most prolific figure who utilized music to sensitize society, Ã¢â¬Å"we believe that freedom songs play a big and vital part in the struggle that we are going throughÃ¢â¬ this words were also echoed by the Albany movement Ã¢â¬Å"music keeps us a live, it gives us a sense of unity, new courage every dawn, hope to move on that the future still holds something in our most daring and dreadful hoursÃ¢â¬ Development of Music The 20th century was a century which United States had great influence in the world of music across the globe. America was the birth place of most influential music, from jazz to rock which was promoted by the q7uality of technology like radio and phonographs. Advanced technology ensured fast distribution of music to Americans and all-round the globe. 20th century also brought African Americans and their music culture which was more practiced by slaves. However, even before the African American s came into music, blues music was already evolving leading to development of other genres like country music, jazz to rock and classical music. Soul music came up as a result of rock and roll from the African American gospel, rhythm and blues. As the century grew bands were created like the bubblegum pop band comprised of blacks who created new fusion of R&B and hip hop music that is still embraced till now. Rap music evolved from the Blues, rap music was made up of deep rhythms and autobiographical lyrics. Music nurtured the African American tradition and their struggle towards equality the same cent... ...its songs. Montgomery, Ala: NewSouth Books. Kirk, J. (2007). Martin Luther King, Jr. and the civil rights movement: controversies and debates. Basingstoke New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Monson, I. (2010).Freedom sounds : civil rights call out to jazz and Africa. New York Oxford: Oxford University Press. Menkart, D., Murray, A. & View, J. (2004). Putting the movement back into civil rights teaching: a resource guide for K-12 classrooms. Washington, D.C: Teaching for Change and the Poverty & Race Research Action Council. Roy, W. (2010). Reds, whites, and blues social movements, folk music, and race in the United States. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Schneider, M. (2002). We return fighting : the civil rights movement in the Jazz Age. Boston: Northeastern University Press Various. (2005). The Civil Rights Movement. City: Morgan Reynolds Pub. Music Played Key Role in US Civil Rights Movement Essay -- Role of Mus Music was used as a critical instrument in the early 20th century in mobilizing and inspiring the civil rights movement by giving them more voice to bring out their grievances. According to Kerk (2007, p.18) Martin Luther king was the most prolific figure who utilized music to sensitize society, Ã¢â¬Å"we believe that freedom songs play a big and vital part in the struggle that we are going throughÃ¢â¬ this words were also echoed by the Albany movement Ã¢â¬Å"music keeps us a live, it gives us a sense of unity, new courage every dawn, hope to move on that the future still holds something in our most daring and dreadful hoursÃ¢â¬ Development of Music The 20th century was a century which United States had great influence in the world of music across the globe. America was the birth place of most influential music, from jazz to rock which was promoted by the q7uality of technology like radio and phonographs. Advanced technology ensured fast distribution of music to Americans and all-round the globe. 20th century also brought African Americans and their music culture which was more practiced by slaves. However, even before the African American s came into music, blues music was already evolving leading to development of other genres like country music, jazz to rock and classical music. Soul music came up as a result of rock and roll from the African American gospel, rhythm and blues. As the century grew bands were created like the bubblegum pop band comprised of blacks who created new fusion of R&B and hip hop music that is still embraced till now. Rap music evolved from the Blues, rap music was made up of deep rhythms and autobiographical lyrics. Music nurtured the African American tradition and their struggle towards equality the same cent... ...its songs. Montgomery, Ala: NewSouth Books. Kirk, J. (2007). Martin Luther King, Jr. and the civil rights movement: controversies and debates. Basingstoke New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Monson, I. (2010).Freedom sounds : civil rights call out to jazz and Africa. New York Oxford: Oxford University Press. Menkart, D., Murray, A. & View, J. (2004). Putting the movement back into civil rights teaching: a resource guide for K-12 classrooms. Washington, D.C: Teaching for Change and the Poverty & Race Research Action Council. Roy, W. (2010). Reds, whites, and blues social movements, folk music, and race in the United States. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Schneider, M. (2002). We return fighting : the civil rights movement in the Jazz Age. Boston: Northeastern University Press Various. (2005). The Civil Rights Movement. City: Morgan Reynolds Pub.
Posted by Eddie Diaz at 9:14 AM
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Nowadays the popularity of online learning is swiftly increasing and more students prefer distance learning to traditional as it offers certain benefits. Walden University offers students opportunities to receive highly-qualified education and to save time on other important things as job, families, etc. What is Walden University? Walden University is an accredited institution which provides engaging learning experience both for professionals and non-professionals. The mission of the University learning community is to attract extraordinary students and to make positive social impact. Learning Community is represented by diverse and vibrant faculty and dedicated students. Faculty members are able to enrich online learning community offering wide range of experiential and educational backgrounds. All members are gifted mentors and highly-talented teachers who are fully committed to UniversityÃ¢â¬â¢s core values and mission Ã¢â¬â to provide educational accesses, social change and professional excellence. Moreover, members of learning community teach the values of integrity and quality. Students of learning community are mid-career professionals who are willing to gain professional achievement and to remain dedicated to lifelong learning. All students are allowed to exchange their ideas and to share diverse perspectives with other faculty members, as well as with fellow students nationwide. It becomes apparent that relationships within community are professional and, at the same time, friendly-oriented. Further, faculty and staff at Walden University will help to balance education with professional and personal commitments. Essential resources are available for mastering skills: Writing Center, world-class library, tutoring, etc. Scholar-practitioners develop all degree programs and they continually visit courses to make sure they possess all modern updates relevant to profession chosen. Learning community offers also international perspective. Every student becomes a member of international community with more than 270,000 members online. More than 50 campuses are in 16 countries. Every student may enter the Laureate International Network and to be provided with excellent opportunity to expand international viewpoint and to apply obtained knowledge to professional life. The most important moment to admit is that Walden University learning community strongly believes that knowledge is the most valuable as it is the most effective way work for greater good. In other words, Walden University calls for social changes. Students and faculty members are willing to improve social and human conditions. They create ideas how to promote individual development, as well as development of organizations, communities and society as a whole. The goal of learning community is to help students to become scholar-practitioners and to conduct scholarly researches in the chosen field. The mission is to provide diverse learning community with friendly-oriented relations and with the opportunity to become scholar-practitioners. It is necessary to underline that learning community of Walden University has influenced both my professional life and the life of the whole society as Walden University promotes the values of knowledge, integrity, quality, honesty and fairness which are the most important in contemporary world. I can apply knowledge not only to critical societal challenges, but also to advance the greater good and social relations. I really appreciate the Walden University offers entirely online courses as it offers certain benefits for me. To be a member of society means being concerned with everyday human relations, emotions and interpersonal skills and Walden learning community gives such a chance. Financial benefits of online courses are ability to save money spent on housing, transportation and food and ability to keep part-time as well as full-time job at the same time. Walden University gives and excellent opportunity to be involved into interactive teamwork between studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ groups i. e. ability to correspond with other students from different parts of the world. Walden University offers modern way of learning which gives an opportunity to master skills and to save time on family, friends and job. References Online Degree: About Walden University. Retrieved June 10, 2008, from http://info. waldenu. edu/aboutwalden. php Walden University: Official Website. Retrieved June 10, 2008, from http://www. waldenu. edu/ Walden University: Online Degree Programs. Retrieved June 10, 2008, from http://www. worldwidelearn. com/waldenu/index. php
Posted by Eddie Diaz at 10:55 AM
Monday, September 16, 2019
International monetary systems are sets of internationally agreed rules, conventions and supporting institutions that facilitate international trade, cross border investment and generally the reallocation of capital between nation states. They provide means of payment acceptable between buyers and sellers of different nationality, including deferred payment. To operate successfully, they need to inspire confidence, to provide sufficient liquidity for fluctuating levels of trade and to provide means by which global imbalances can be corrected. The systems can grow organically as the collective result of numerous individual agreements between international economic actors spread over several decades. Alternatively, they can arise from a single architectural vision as happened at Bretton Woods in 1944. Historical overview Throughout history, precious metals such as gold and silver have been used for trade, termed bullion, and since early history the coins of various issuers Ã¢â¬â generally kingdoms and empires Ã¢â¬â have been traded. The earliest known records of pre Ã¢â¬â coinage use of bullion for monetary exchange are from Mesopotamia and Egypt, dating from the third millennium BC. 1] Its believed that at this time money played a relatively minor role in the ordering of economic life for these regions, compared to barter and centralised redistribution Ã¢â¬â a process where the population surrendered their produce to ruling authorities who then redistrubted it as they saw fit. Coinage is believed to have first developed in China in the late 7th century, and independently at around the same time in Lydia, Asia minor, from where its use spread to near by Greek cities and later to the rest of the world. 1] Sometimes formal monetary systems have been imposed by regional rules. For example scholars have tentatively suggested that the ruler Servius Tullius created a primitive monetary system in the archaic period of what was to become the Roman Republic. Tullius reigned in the sixth century BC Ã¢â¬â several centuries before Rome is believed to have developed a formal coinage system.  As with bullion, early use of coinage is believed to have been generally the preserve of the elite. But by about the 4th century they were widely used in Greek cities. Coins were generally supported by the city state authorities, who endeavoured to ensure they retained their values regardless of fluctuations in the availability of whatever base precious metals they were made from.  From Greece the use of coins spread slowly westwards throughout Europe, and eastwards to India. Coins were in use in India from about 400BC, initially they played a greater role in religion than trade, but by the 2nd century had become central to commercial transactions. Monetary systems developed in India were so successful they continued to spread through parts of Asia well into the Middle Ages.  As multiple coins became common within a region, they have been exchanged by moneychangers, which are the predecessors of today's foreign exchange market. These are famously discussed in the Biblical story of Jesus and the money changers. In Venice and the Italian city states of the early Middle Ages, money changes would often have to struggle to perform calculations involving six or more currencies. This partly let to Fibonacci writing his Liber Abaci where he popularised the use of Arabic numerals which displaced the more difficult roman numerals then in use by western merchants.  Historic international currencies. From top left: crystalline gold, a 5th century BCE Persian daric, an 8th century English mancus, and an 18th century Spanish real. When a given nation or empire has achieved regional hegemony, its currency has been a basis for international trade, and hence for a de facto monetary system. In the West Ã¢â¬â Europe and the Middle East Ã¢â¬â an early such coin was the Persian daric, of the Persian empire. This was succeeded by Roman currency of the Roman empire, such as the denarius, then the Gold Dinar of the Muslim empire, and later Ã¢â¬â from the 16th to 20th centuries, during the Age of Imperialism Ã¢â¬â by the currency of European colonial powers: the Spanish dollar, the Dutch Gilder, the French Franc and the British Pound Sterling; at times one currency has been pre-eminent, at times no one dominated. With the growth of American power, the US Dollar became the basis for the international monetary system, formalized in the Bretton Woods agreement that established the post-World War II monetary order, with fixed exchange rates of currencies to the dollar, and convertibility of the dollar into gold. Since the breakdown of the Bretton Woods system, culminating in the Nixon shock of 1971, ending convertibility, the US dollar has remained the de facto basis of the world monetary system, though no longer de jure, with various European currencies and the Japanese Yen being used. Since the formation of the Euro, the Euro has gained use as a reserve currency and a unit of transactions, though the dollar has remained the primary currency. A dominant currency may be used directly or indirectly by other nations Ã¢â¬â for example, English kings minted gold mancus, presumably to function as dinars to exchange with Islamic Spain, and more recently, a number of nations have used the US dollar as their local currency, a custom called dollarization. Until the 19th century, the global monetary system was loosely linked at best, with Europe, the Americas, India and China (among others) having largely separate economies, and hence monetary systems were regional. European colonization of the Americas, starting with the Spanish empire, led to the integration of American and European economies and monetary systems, and European colonization of Asia led to the dominance of European currencies, notably the British pound sterling in the 19th century, succeeded by the US dollar in the 20th century. Some, such as Michael Hudson, foresee the decline of a single basis for the global monetary system, and instead the emergence of regional trade blocs, citing the emergence of the Euro as an example of this phenomenon. See also Global financial systems , world-systems approach and polarity in international relations. It was in the later half of the 19th century that a monetary system with close to universal global participation emerged, based on the gold standard. History of modern global monetary orders The pre WWI financial order: 1870Ã¢â¬â1914Ã From the 1870s to the outbreak of World War I in 1914, the world benefited from a well integrated financial order, sometimes known as the First age of Globalisation.   Money unions were operating which effectively allowed members to accept each others currency as legal tender including the Latin Monetary Union (Belgium, Italy, Switzerland, France) and Scandinavian monetary union (Denmark, Norway and Sweden). In the absence of shared membership of a union, transactions were facilitated by widespread participation in the gold standard, by both independent nations and their colonies. Great Britain was at the time the world's pre-eminent financial, imperial, and industrial power, ruling more of the world and exporting more capital as a percentage of her national income than any other creditor nation has since.  While capital controls comparable to the Bretton Woods System were not in place, damaging capital flows were far less common than they were to be in the post 1971 era. In fact Great Britain's capital exports helped to correct global imbalances as they tended to be counter cyclical, rising when Britain's economy went into recession, thus compensating other states for income lost from export of goods. Accordingly, this era saw mostly steady growth and a relatively low level of financial crises. In contrast to the Bretton Woods system, the pre-World War I financial order was not created at a single high level conference; rather it evolved organically in a series of discrete steps. The Gilded Age, a time of especially rapid development in North America, falls into this period. Between the World Wars: 1919Ã¢â¬â1939 The years between the world wars have been described as a period of de-globalisation, as both international trade and capital flows shrank compared to the period before World War I. During World War I countries had abandoned the gold standard and, except for the United States, returned to it only briefly. By the early 30's the prevailing order was essentially a fragmented system of floating exchange rates .  In this era, the experience of Great Britain and others was that the gold standard ran counter to the need to retain domestic policy autonomy. To protect their reserves of gold countries would sometimes need to raise interest rates and generally follow a deflationary policy. The greatest need for this could arise in a downturn, just when leaders would have preferred to lower rates to encourage growth. Economist Nicholas Davenport  had even argued that the wish to return Britain to the gold standard, Ã¢â¬Å"sprang from a sadistic desire by the Bankers to inflict pain on the British working class. Ã¢â¬ By the end of World War I, Great Britain was heavily indebted to the United States, allowing the USA to largely displace her as the worlds number one financial power. The United States however was reluctant to assume Great Britain's leadership role, partly due to isolationist influences and a focus on domestic concerns. In contrast to Great Britain in the previous era, capital exports from the US were not counter cyclical. They expanded rapidly with the United States's economic growth in the twenties up to 1928, but then almost completely halted as the US economy began slowing in that year. As the Great Depression intensified in 1930, financial institutions were hit hard along with trade; in 1930 alone 1345 US banks collapsed. During the 1930s the United States raised trade barriers, refused to act as an international lender of last resort, and refused calls to cancel war debts, all of which further aggravated economic hardship for other countries. According to economist John Maynard Keynes another factor contributing to the turbulent economic performance of this era was the insistence of French premier Clemenceau that Germany pay war reparations at too high a level, which Keynes described in his book The Economic Consequences of the Peace. The Bretton Woods Era: 1945Ã¢â¬â1971 British and American policy makers began to plan the post war international monetary system in the early 1940s. The objective was to create an order that combined the benefits of an integrated and relatively liberal international system with the freedom for governments to pursue domestic policies aimed at promoting full employment and social wellbeing . 11] The principal architects of the new system, John Maynard Keynes and Harry Dexter White, created a plan which was endorsed by the 42 countries attending the 1944 Bretton Woods conference. The plan involved nations agreeing to a system of fixed but adjustable exchange rates where the currencies were pegged against the dollar, with the dollar itself convertible into gold. So in effect this was a gold Ã¢â¬â dollar exchange standard. There were a number of improvements on the old gold standard. Two international institutions, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank were created; A key part of their function was to replace private finance as more reliable source of lending for investment projects in developing states. At the time the soon to be defeated powers of Germany and Japan were envisaged as states soon to be in need of such development, and there was a desire from both the US and Britain not to see the defeated powers saddled with punitive sanctions that would inflict lasting pain on future generations. The new exchange rate system allowed countries facing economic hardship to devalue their currencies by up to 10% against the dollar (more if approved by the IMF) Ã¢â¬â thus they would not be forced to undergo deflation to stay in the gold standard. A system of capital controls was introduced to protect countries from the damaging effects of capital flight and to allow countries to pursue independent macro economic policies  while still welcoming flows intended for productive investment. Keynes had argued against the dollar having such a central role in the monetary system, and suggested an international currency called Bancor be used instead, but he was overruled by the Americans. Towards the end of the Bretton Woods era, the central role of the dollar became a problem as international demand eventually forced the US to run a persistent trade deficit, which undermined confidence in the dollar. This, together with the emergence of a parallel market for gold where the price soared above the official US mandated price, led to speculators running down the US gold reserves. Even when convertibility was restricted to nations only, some, notably France, continued building up hoards of gold at the expense of the US. Eventually these pressures caused President Nixon to end all convertibility into gold on 15 August 1971. This event marked the effective end of the Bretton Woods systems; attempts were made to find other mechanisms to preserve the fixed exchange rates over the next few years, but they were not successful, resulting in a system of floating exchange rates. 13] The post Bretton Woods system: 1971 Ã¢â¬â present An alternative name for the post Bretton Woods system is the Washington Consensus. While the name was coined in 1989, the associated economic system came into effect years earlier: according to economic historian Lord Skidelsky the Washington Consensus is generally seen as spanning 1980Ã¢â¬â2009 (the latter half of the 1970s being a transitional period).  The transition away from Bretton Woods was marked by a switch from a state led to a market led system. 4] The Bretton Wood system is considered by economic historians to have broken down in the 1970s: crucial events being Nixon suspending the dollar's convertibility into gold in 1971, the United states abandonment of Capital Controls in 1974, and Great Britain's ending of capital controls in 1979 which was swiftly copied by most other major economies. In some parts of the developing world, liberalisation brought significant benefits for large sections of the population Ã¢â¬â most prominently with Deng Xiaoping's reforms in China since 1978 and the liberalisation of India after her 1991 crisis. Generally the industrial nations experienced much slower growth and higher unemployment than in the previous era, and according to Professor Gordon Fletcher in retrospect the 1950s and 60s when the Bretton Woods system was operating came to be seen as a golden age.  Financial crises have been more intense and have increased in frequency by about 300% Ã¢â¬â with the damaging effects prior to 2008 being chiefly felt in the emerging economies. On the positive side, at least until 2008 investors have frequently achieved very high rates of return, with salaries and bonuses in the financial sector reaching record levels. The Ã¢â¬Å"Revived Bretton Woods systemÃ¢â¬ identified in 2003 From 2003, economists such as Michael P. Dooley, Peter M. Garber, and David Folkerts-Landau began writing papers describing the emergence of a new international system involving an interdependency between states with generally high savings in Asia lending and exporting to western states with generally high spending. Similar to the original Bretton Woods, this included Asian currencies being pegged to the dollar, though this time by the unilateral intervention of Asian governments in the currency market to stop their currencies appreciating. The developing world as a whole stopped running current account deficits in 1999  Ã¢â¬â widely seen as a response to unsympathetic treatment following the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis. The most striking example of east-west interdependency is the relationship between China and America, which Niall Ferguson calls Chimerica. From 2004, Dooley et al. began using the term Bretton Woods II to describe this de facto state of affairs, and continue to do so as late as 2009. Others have described this supposed Ã¢â¬Å"Bretton Woods IIÃ¢â¬ , sometimes called Ã¢â¬Å"New Bretton WoodsÃ¢â¬ , as a Ã¢â¬Å"fictionÃ¢â¬ , and called for the elimination of the structural imbalances that underlie it, viz, the chronic US current account deficit.  However since at least 2007 those authors have also used the term Ã¢â¬Å"Bretton Woods IIÃ¢â¬ to call for a new de jure system: for key international financial institutions like the IMF and World Bank to be revamped to meet the demands of the current age, and between 2008 to mid 2009 the terms Bretton Woods II and New Bretton Woods was increasingly used in the latter sense. By late 2009, with less emphases on structural reform to the international monetary system and more attention being paid to issues such as re-balancing the world economy, Bretton Woods II is again frequently used to refer to the practice some countries have of unilaterally pegging their currencies to the dollar.
Posted by Eddie Diaz at 1:14 PM