Saturday, August 31, 2019
Since at least August of 2008, the privately owned Federal Reserve family of members banks are being bailed out by the US taxpayer. Some financial writers such as Rodgers (2008) hold that the bailout has been occurring for far longer, but at least as far as the rather timid news media are concerned, the Ã¢â¬Å"publicÃ¢â¬ side of the bailouts has occurred since September of 2008. This will lead to a serious devaluation of an already devalued dollar. The reasons and theory will be described in the body of this paper.The basics are the following: after years of reckless lending and irresponsible spending by the public, the value of major investments, especially real estate, was dangerously overvalued. Continuing high returns gave banks incentives, at all levels, to extend credit with few controls, leading to the inevitable crunch that many mainstream writers claimed would never happen. The result, predictably, is that the larger institutions such as the major insurance form AIG, were to be bailed out.The mechanism for this bail out is rather simple: the Ã¢â¬Å"toxicÃ¢â¬ paper held by the private banks are to be exchanged for marginally less toxic paper from the Treasury. However, this paper has no value unless the Federal Government could borrow the money. At the moment, there is an inexplicable international trust in the American government to forward the money, but the official $800 billion figure is far from the truth. Far more money is needed, and has been invested in this scam already. The arguments in favor of the bailout are poor and contrived.They seem to revolve around the argument that if the major institutions fail, the shocks through the economy would be so bad as to affect even the most marginal taxpayer in America. With major bank and insurance failures, the ordinary man in the street would be severely affected. Hence, the bailout is meant to protect the taxpayer. In addition, the argument also tacks on the addendum that the paper taken from th e failing institutions will eventually be resold on the international markets once the crisis has passed and some level of confidence bas been regained (Warring, 2008).This argument is very poorly thought out, since, by the same token, oneÃ¢â¬â¢s boss should have his debts paid by the US taxpayer since his failure would lead to his employees losing their jobs. Hence, his debts should be paid. The argument against the bailout is equally simple: it continually places the economy at the mercy of borrowed money, and, more importantly, that the people who helped create this crisis are precisely the same ones that are being rewarded through bailouts.It is fundamentally undemocratic and oligarchic in that the ordinary taxpayer in debt receives foreclosure, while the elite receive taxpayer money. Lastly, and more importantly relative to this essay, the continuing bailouts of the major economic players will dangerously increase the money supply and lead to hyperinflation (Warring, 2008). I n dealing with the question of inflation and the fall of the dollar, the nature of the Federal Reserve institution needs to be dealt with. First of all, the Fed was created in 1913 as a private institution, not a part of the federal government.Its member banks, according to Standard and Poor, are the Rothschild dynasty in London, the Seif dynasty in Italy, Lehman Bros in New York (allowed to fail in September), Chase Manhattan and Goldman Sachs, both in New York. While some may protest that the executive branch has some appointative power over the Fed, the reality is that the above firms are some of the most generous with their money in presidential campaigns, and the Federal Election Commission reports that Goldman Sachs was the leading campaign contributor to both Obama and McCain campaigns, with $4 million to Obama and almost $1.5 million to McCain (Open Secret Reports, 2009). Hence, it needs to be mentioned straight forward that the Fed banks are self governing and help elect th e president in the first place. Hence, given the makeup of the FedÃ¢â¬â¢s board, little discussed outside the web, one can see that the bailout is over not merely the American financial sector, but the globeÃ¢â¬â¢s. The significance of the fed relative to dollar devaluation is that whatever the US government cannot raise though loans, itself repressive of the dollarÃ¢â¬â¢s value and repressive of international confidence, must be printed by the Federal Reserve members banks.In more detail, the situation looks like this: The Federal Reserve international financial board of governors decided to increase the Monetary Base (MB) of the country last year. The MB is defined as the total amount of money in circulation plus the reserve of the members banks. This came to $1. 4 trillion by last December, coming up from $800 billion a month prior (Engdahl, 2008). With this, banks still did not want to lend, and confidence did not increase. Hence, there is a huge pool of liquid that is for cing the dollar down that is not restoring confidence.This in part is because the US is broke, also in part that the amount of dollars held by foreign investors in China, the Arab World, Russia and India is a massive amount, continuing a downward pressure on the dollar and threatening the US with severe depression if these states decided to dump even a fraction of these dollars on the market. Is it possible that the bailout is really designed to give confidence to foreign governments and private banks who are thinking of purging their dollar reserves and moving to Euros?The reality is that if there is a threat of devaluation, then states and investors might be induced to sell, creating a panic and bottoming out the currency. Since the Fed will not disclose the recipients of the loans, and, further, the Treasury department will not disclose the nature of the toxic paper they are buying, there is no rebounding in confidence, hence, the dollar looks terrible in international eyes. Henc e, the Fed, realizing the state, which backs the dollar in the first place, has no money to lend, will merely print the money to fill the gap (Engdahl, 2008).Hence, given the stagnant MP, plus the fact that the bailout is being financed by foreign borrowing and by printing, there is no question that the dollar will fall. Since 2000, the dollar has lost 40% of its value against the Euro. In the chart below, the dollar is compared with the Euro during the bailout from 28 December 2007 to 27 January 2008. The below graph does indicate some recovery of the dollar against te Euro, but there can be no doubt as to the long term weakness of the US currency.Apparently, there is some mild increase in confidence that the bailout might make the US economy more solvent, but the below information is too limited for a full understanding. From the beginning of the bailout until mid November of last year, the US debt increased almost $958 billion. Add to this the record breaking trade deficit of alm ost $1 trillion, and the dollar is in serous trouble. The increase in public debt due to the bailout out is destroying the dollarÃ¢â¬â¢s value. According to Asia News (2008), the US is now committed to over $8.95 trillion dollars to the bailout. The total US economy was roughly $13 billion, with the full debt at about $10 trillion. About 61% of this debt was held by foreign investors, the majority Asian. Since trillions of dollars are held by Asian investors, and debt in the US (both private and public) reaches levels of complete insolvency, the Asians will insist on eliminating dollars as a method of doing business and hence, the dollar will not only loose value, but collapse, leading to a crisis of Argentinian proportions in 2009 (Asia News, 2008).This year, the same author at Asia News writes: Ã¢â¬Å"But Asia now understands that the increase of money supply decreases the intrinsic value of a currency. That is why China is seeking a possible and rational attempt to decouple Asi an currencies from the dollar, as recent news stories report. (Asia News, 2009). Hence, the math is simple: too many dollars in circulation, too much printing by the Fed to create the bailout liquidity means the devaluation and eventual collapse of the dollar, and the US taxpayer is powerless over the private Fed as well as the foreign investors that are publically now saying they will eliminate dollar reserves.The reality is this: once there is a sense that a country is insolvent, and that it simply cannot pay its debts, compounded by a massive bailout that the country cannot possibly finance on its own, investors run to get rid of dollars. Even worse, capital fight can result, where money begins leaving the insolvent country, in this case the US, investing instead in Russia, China, Thailand or the EU. Hence, the bailout is merely the tail end of a long fall in th US dollar, a powerful symbol of the US government and corporate governance to control investment and spending.
Posted by Eddie Diaz at 7:00 AM
Friday, August 30, 2019
Wal-Mart went public in October of 1970. Their IPO was 3,000 shares at a price of $16. 50 per share. By having a smart business model and keeping cost low though a variety of tactics including low employees wages and benefits, Wal-Mart has been able to sustain an incredible rate of growth. Since their IPO Wal-Mart has undergone eleven full 2-1 stock splits. That means that just one share of their IPO has turned into 2,048 current shares. The current market value of Wal-Mart stocks on the NYSE is $62. 0 per share. If an investor bought just one share in 1970 for $16. 50, today that investment would be worth $127,590. 40. In addition to rising stock value, investors receive a quarterly cash dividend payment that was paid out at $0. 2725 per share as of July 2009. People start and invest in businesses to make money. Wal-Mart should concentrate on serving their shareholders by producing profits because the business would not exist in the same capacity without their investment.They have c ertainly done this, keeping their expenses low by paying minimum wage and limiting employee benefits in addition to a number of other influential factors has allowed Wal-Mart to recognize large profits, which serve its shareholders well. By paying employees low wages and limiting benefits in addition to savvy business planning Wal-Mart has grown into an incredibly profitable company. In 2010 they had revenues totaling $408,214,000,000 and more importantly they recognized a profit of $14,335,000,000.Some of this profit is paid out to shareholders in the form of dividends but the vast majority is retained by Wal-Mart and reinvested. These retained earnings allow them to expand and open up stores all over the world. As they expand their operations they will employ more and more people. Wal-Mart has been known to open up stores in rural areas where unemployment rates happen to be especially high. By opening stores in these areas they are lowering unemployment and putting cash into the h ands of people who desperately need it.They currently operate more than 9,600 retail units in 28 countries around the world. They employ 2. 1 million people globally, including almost 1. 4 million in the United States alone. By generating an astounding amount of revenue and keeping there expenses as low as they can make them i. e. paying employees minimum wage and limiting benefits, Wal-Mart is able reinvest profits and open up new retail units that will employ lots of people who desperately need employment.
Posted by Eddie Diaz at 9:23 AM
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Boston Massacre - Essay Example tle distanceÃ¢â¬ while he avoided any subjective sentiment which might be necessary as the captain further testified that the boisterous crowd threatened them with increasing riots and exclamations of insulting phrases from the civilians. Pictures of the Ã¢â¬ËBoston MassacreÃ¢â¬â¢, however, exhibit an opposing view presenting how armed soldiers line up as if due to a deliberate scheme of firing at the townspeople in protest. A primary witness Theodore Bliss attested Ã¢â¬Å"I did not hear any order given by the captain to fire Ã¢â¬â I stood so near him I think I must have heard him if he had given an order to fire before the first firing.Ã¢â¬ On the contrary, another witness Robert Goddard claimed Ã¢â¬Å"I saw no person speak to him Ã¢â¬â I was so near I should have seen it Ã¢â¬â After the captain said Ã¢â¬ËDamn your bloods! Fire! Ã¢â¬â They all fired one after another.Ã¢â¬ Apparently, these are quite contradictory statements indicating that one of them must be fabricating a story in order to conceal the real truth and save the side in his favor. This likely puts the credibility of such testimonies shown under question, granted that they depict uncertainties, emotional tone of accusation in exa ggerating detail, and surprisingly missing information about logical links between occurrences told. Based on the historical timeline demonstrating how one act led to another, the American Revolution was at its reasonable heights having originated from imposition of additional taxes on common products by the British Parliament, pressing the colonists to struggle with their already burdened state of economy and standard of living at the time. Hence, truth may seek its way to justice through it and PrestonÃ¢â¬â¢s calm explanation of the matter that the captain can be judged to have truly not committed the crime with the shooting order. He ought not to be labeled as guilty of commanding to fire, nevertheless, he should still be held responsible for not attempting to suppress his subject troops from firing
Posted by Eddie Diaz at 11:45 AM
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
The appearance of 'symbolism' and 'themes' found in Maya Angelou's, I know Why the Caged Bird Sings - Essay Example The years in between are marked by at least seven major upheavals of her life, moving from her parents home as a tiny child to her grandmotherÃ¢â¬â¢s house in Stamps, back to St. Louis to live with her mother and back to Stamps following a rape by her motherÃ¢â¬â¢s boyfriend. Eventually, she is returned to her mother, this time in San Francisco. Her visit to her father in Southern California turns into a nightmare period of living on the streets until she is finally able to return to her motherÃ¢â¬â¢s home in San Francisco. Throughout the story, Angelou employs a great deal of symbolism to relate her personal journey to the greater journey of the black woman of her generation through such devices as MayaÃ¢â¬â¢s Easter Dress, MommaÃ¢â¬â¢s store, MayaÃ¢â¬â¢s rape at the age of eight, the metaphor of the cage and the concept of voice. The story begins with a particularly poignant scene from MayaÃ¢â¬â¢s early life in Stamps that instantly identifies the degree to which the black community was subdued under the yoke of white expectations through the symbol of the lavender dress. Although MayaÃ¢â¬â¢s community is entirely black, her ideals regarding what is beautiful are established by the white world outside. This concept is symbolized in the form of her lavender Easter dress. Ã¢â¬Å"I knew that once I put it on IÃ¢â¬â¢d look like a movie star Ã¢â¬ ¦ I was going to look like one of the sweet little white girls who were everybodyÃ¢â¬â¢s dream of what was right with the worldÃ¢â¬ (Angelou 1). In this statement, Angelou captures the primary desire of all black girls of her generation and before and many since who have felt the only way to find social acceptance was to somehow rid oneself of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Ëblackness.Ã¢â¬â¢ Angelou herself has indicated that she Ã¢â¬Å"wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t thinking so much a bout my own life or identity. I was thinking about a particular time in which I lived and the influences of that time on a number of people Ã¢â¬ ¦ I used the central figure Ã¢â¬â
Posted by Eddie Diaz at 1:59 PM
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Violence in the Media Contributes to Behavior in Children - Research Paper Example From the essay it is clear thatÃ the issue of media violence is highly controversial and there has been no common consensus so far. According to some researchers, constant exposure of children to violent content on television, such as shooting, bombings etc., desensitizes them and hampers their emotional development. It is also stated that such exposure may possibly influence them to use it as a normal response when faced with stressful situations. It is also suggested that continuous exposure to violence and violent images, is likely to evoke feelings of fear, anxiety and trauma among children thus resulting in sleeplessness. Some children may find it difficult to differentiate between real and reel life events, thus causing developmental setbacks.As the report discusses the dangerous impact of exposure to violent content on television, is described differently by different researchers. The negative impacts of exposure to media violence is akin to that of smoking or consumption of tobacco, both of which result in life threatening consequences such as lung cancer.Ã Exposure to violent images and content on television, leads to development of bitterness and hostility among the children, which elicits harsh and intensely emotional responses and reactions when faced with difficult and taxing situations.Ã Neurologists have argued that extensive exposure to violent television programs and other aggressive content by children.
Posted by Eddie Diaz at 4:28 PM
Monday, August 26, 2019
Hand Wash - Essay Example In a review article11 Semmelweis observed that mortality rate from puerperal fever was high (16%) before May 1847 in a clinic where doctors and student doctors provided care to women in labour despite washing hands with soap and water before entering the obstetric clinicÃ¢â¬ (Mukwato et al. n.d.). Semmelweis (1847) assume that the elevated rates of puerperal flu and infection were caused by the Ã¢â¬Å"cadaverousÃ¢â¬ element, spread from the autopsy room to the obstetric region via the hands of student and from the doctors. In May 1847, Semmelweis confirmed through that doctors and students rub their hands in lime mixture (which is also chlorinated) prior to each bodily examination. As a result the death rate in that clinic had a drop from 16% to 3.06% in the remaining 7 months of 1847. Ã¢â¬Å"Heynes et al  offered a widely accepted definition of compliance within health care settings . According to this definition, compliance is the extent to which certain behaviour (fo r example, following physician's orders or implementing healthier lifestyles) is in accordance with the physicians' instructions or health care advice. Compliance can be influenced or controlled by a variety of factors like culture, economic and social factors, self-efficacy, and lack of knowledge or meansÃ¢â¬ (Efstathiou et al. 2012). Katowa P. Mukwato, 1C.M.Ã in his report, states that the analysed that mortality rate is inferior to burns infectivity was low in wards that were located on the top floor.... In May 1847, Semmelweis confirmed through that doctors and students rub their hands in lime mixture (which is also chlorinated) prior to each bodily examination. As a result the death rate in that clinic had a drop from 16% to 3.06% in the remaining 7 months of 1847. Ã¢â¬Å"Heynes et al  offered a widely accepted definition of compliance within health care settings . According to this definition, compliance is the extent to which certain behaviour (for example, following physician's orders or implementing healthier lifestyles) is in accordance with the physicians' instructions or health care advice. Compliance can be influenced or controlled by a variety of factors like culture, economic and social factors, self-efficacy, and lack of knowledge or meansÃ¢â¬ (Efstathiou et al. 2012). Katowa P. Mukwato, 1C.M. in his report, states that the analysed that mortality rate is inferior to burns infectivity was low in wards that were located on the top floor most likely due to minim um actions and good exposure to air. These statements highlight the significance of variable traffic flow and movement pattern as a component of disease prevention. Assessment of traffic and action patterns in a ward helps in diminishing the number of microorganisms there in the environment, as the amount of microorganisms in a selected area tends to be associated to the number of people present and the various activities carried out. Ã¢â¬Å"A worrying trend in hospitals is the emergence of antibiotic-resistant organisms which can survive on the hands of health care workers. Many, if not most, hospital-acquired infections continue to be spread by direct
Posted by Eddie Diaz at 7:02 PM
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Globalisation - challenges for ceos and solutions - Essay Example Globalization has been a part of human evolution over the centuries. The first phase of globalization occurred from the 1870s to World War I, this was accompanied by industrialization and increase in global trade. The second phase is said to have begun with the end of the Cold war in the 1990's. Technology and communications have been the drivers of this phase. (Parrett: 2005). "Globalization" implies economic integration of nations through trade, investment, production, flow of capital, information technology, joint ventures, mergers and acquisitions and other related activities. (Phua : 2004 ). It is essential to understand the scope and dimensions of globalization to enable business benefit from the opportunities for growth as well as the perils. The role of a CEO in the integrated World of tomorrow is all important. However the exact dimensions of the challenges faced by CEOs and their role thereof in the global environment have not been fully defined. Globalization is also takin g place in diverse environments geographically, politically and socially, thus the challenges faced by the CEOs are varied. It is therefore essential that we undertake an analysis of this essential facet as it will define the social as well business environment of the future. (Napolitano: 2006)The role of globalization in the growth of business has been well recognized in recent times. Globalization today is driven by policy changes where governments have reduced the obstacles for trade, thereby making it a tool for development. (Bhagwati : 2004). In a survey of CEOs carried out in the United States, over 75 percent of the CEOs identified international customers, consumers and employees as more important and approximately 70 percent determined reduction in the role of labor unions. With growth opportunities limited at home, it was also identified that expansion of market share was important for growth for which globalization provided the ideal vehicle. (NIST Survey :1998). The chall enge of globalization for companies is to harmonize local sensitivities to the harsh realties of competitive business in the international arena. (Duncan: 2002). Globalization is also driving competition and hence creating new opportunities. These need to be seized and companies should position themselves to take advantage of the situation. (Parrett: 2005). Globalization also creates complexity, this creates a need for the CEOs to explain and manage this complexity successfully. (CEO Survey). Globalization has created economies of scale at an international level creating beneficiaries from variations in inflation; savings, competition, and job creation in say China with low-cost manufacturing which has kept inflation low. (Parrett: 2005). Role of CEOs The CEO has a major role to play in sustaining corporate continuity in a cohesive manner to include intangible facets as customer satisfaction, product and service quality, ethical conduct and reputation, operational performance, and employee commitment. (Parrett: 2005). The CEO has to transact with the society as a whole and particularly its three major constituents, other companies, government, and civil society. (Napolitano: 2006). The CEO has to seamlessly link the organization globally and locally by synergizing its goals and aspirations in both the dimensions. (Napolitano: 2006). A CEO should be sensitive to ensure that the organizations goals and operations are not creating resentment in society which in the final analysis would damage the company in the longer run. (Napolitano: 2006). A CEOs role is perceived as a partner rather than a leader. It has a lot to do with effective management of the company, its external involvement as well as the government. (Global Corporate Citizenship : 2003). Nearly 80 percent of CEOs say they have made reducing unnecessary complexity a personal priority. Their primary focus areas are information
Posted by Eddie Diaz at 9:36 PM
Analyzing World Cultures - Essay Example It also comprises of upholding human rights while ensuring equitability in sharing of natural resources. Culture can be expressed in various forms such as through vernacular, songs, dances, clothes, folktales etc. The analysis of the culture of Indians and Japans can be made by looking into the cultural expressions presented through videos such as India Bollywood movies and Japan Anime videos. Bollywood here represents the Hindi film industry which uses the regional languages in their movies. For the Anime videos it uses cartoons as characters to present the theme of the video. They employ the user of computer-animated anime in various films, videos or movies to present the intended theme. Anime movies try to capture the rich Japanese culture focusing on the attitudes and concerns of people while giving a linkage to the past. This films, video games, music and manga made through use of past traditional artistic features serve as a link to the traditional art. They influence a large percentage of the population since most people generally spend many hours watching televisions and listening to the radio. This is a special phenomenon among the teenagers and retired people. Bollywood movies similarly just like anime videos depict the rich Indian culture. The major themes are usually upholding the traditions of the Indian people and the family values. The young characters who have embraced westernization are depicted going back to their roots which are deep rooted in tradition but somehow modern India. A good example of such depiction is the movie Kuch Kuch Hota Hai of 1998. The storyline is about a well foreign-educated young girl who tries to show here adherence to Indian values by giving up the superficial westernized way of life she was used to. A common feature in Bollywood is the use of songs in the middle of the movies to depict various emotions (Ravinder, 2002). The cultural differences
Posted by Eddie Diaz at 12:10 AM
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Health Care Reform Compare and Contrast - Research Paper Example Statistics claims that 86 percent of the citizens in Tennessee have insurance. However, the number has been decreasing for the past twenty years which mean that about 14 percent of the citizens in Tennessee remain unprotected. Employers who offer health insurance to their employees are good with a 54.7 percent who specifically offer health insurance plans to their employees. This percentage has been recorded steadily to increase which is expected to include more citizens in the health insurance policy which is expected to include more citizens in the health insurance policy. On the other hand, Louisiana residents who do not have s health insurance coverage is high this has contributed to the state having the highest where only 80 percent of Louisiana citizens are protected. It is projected that in case of an emergency, Louisiana would be the worst hit since access to health care if difficult in this state but also the quality of health is low compared with Tennessee. In Louisiana, on ly 52 percent of employers offer their employees with a health benefit insurance cover. This has attracted the attention of health staffs who are working towards the possibility of increasing the percentage of employers within the state who are ready to offer health insurance to their employees that are expected to lower the unprotected citizen percentage. Nevertheless, Louisiana offers the best rates of primary care physicians who are available to help people (H.CO, 2010). For Louisiana to increase in offering health care to its citizen more public health funding which has helped Tennessee to grow should also be increased in Louisiana to increase the number of protected citizen that may help the state to at least be at the same level with Tennessee. Tennessee statistically is placed at one of the least healthy states across the nation where the united health
Posted by Eddie Diaz at 2:43 AM
Friday, August 23, 2019
Business information system - Essay Example There are many factors that are contributing to the increasing vulnerability of organizational information assets. Given below are some of the important factors that play significant role in making the organizational assets vulnerable (Prentice Hall, 2010; KingCounty, 2009; Turban et al., 2005): Internet Vulnerabilities The research has shown that open or public networks such as the Internet are more vulnerable than internal networks for the reason that they are virtually open to everyone. Hence, when the Internet turns out to be an important part of the business network, and the most of the business tasks are supported by this network then the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s information arrangements also become open for attacks from outsiders. Wireless Security Challenges Wireless networks based on radio technology are also vulnerable to security penetration for the reason that radio frequency bands are easy to scan and detect for the attackers. These days Wi-Fi technology is extensively avai lable and offering great deal of support for connectivity and information sharing. However, these networks always remain the major target of attackers which can cause problems for the organizations and attacks against information system. Malicious Software: Viruses, Worms, Trojan Horses, and Spyware A malicious software program can cause a variety of threats for example worms, computer viruses and Trojan horses. These threats can cause massive destruction to organizationsÃ¢â¬â¢ resources in the forms of theft of organizational information, personal data theft and huge danger to corporate and personal information. Hackers and Cybervandalism A hacker is a person who aims to obtain illegal access to an information system. However, in the hacking community, the term cracker is normally employed to demonstrate a hacker with criminal objectives, though in the public press, the terms cracker and hacker are employed interchangeably. These hackers can get access to an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s network and launch a variety of security attacks such as: (Prentice Hall, 2010; KingCounty, 2009; Turban et al., 2005): Spoofing and sniffing Denial of service attacks Identity theft Question 2: Contrast unintentional and deliberate threats to an information resource. Provide two (2) examples of both. Information systems are vulnerable and in danger due to a number of possible threats and hazards. However, there are two major types of threats known as deliberate threats and unintentional threats. Given below are acts with no malicious determination and with malicious determination (Rainer, 2009; Safari Books Online, 2013; E.Whitman, 2004): Unintentional Threats Device Loss Human errors or mistakes are the major causes of un-intentional threats that can happen due to human error or due to negligence of human. For example, a person who has lost his device, mobile or laptop which be misused by an attacker for carrying out illegal activities. Temporary Hires Temporary hires are also ma jor type of unintentional threats. In this scenario, temporary workers including contract labor, janitors, consultants, and guards can also create serious security loss for the organizations. Contract labor, for example temporary hires, can be ignored in information security policy. Though, these staff members can unintentionally access the
Posted by Eddie Diaz at 5:33 AM
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Gender Inequality Essay It is not up for debate whether women are discriminated against in the workplace it is evident in census data; in 1998 women made 73 cents to the dollar paid to men. Even today, there is still a pay gap that exists between women and men. It is said that the organizations that are pro-equal pay, including some unions, support the idea that the government should set wages for all jobs. To the contrary, the organizations that are proponents of equal pay are not for job wages being set by the government-they wish to have the discrimination taken out of pay scales from within the company. Commonly, this pay gap is attributed to the fact that women in the United States are still expected to attend to familial obligations over work. Data shows that women do attend to family obligations, like having a child, caring for a sick family member, or caring for an elder; but they also do not give up on work. Yes, women often chose lower paying jobs in exchange for flexible hours and do spend a lower number of hours per week long-term at their jobs than their male counterparts. Because women are socialized to be the primary care givers they are kept at these lower paying jobs that are more flexible, the jobs allow them to care for their family yet still retain an income (possibly a second income for the household). WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s changing roles in society has resulted in this workplace problem. Women are allowed and often encouraged to work but they are not rewarded or compensated at the same level, for their efforts, that men in the work force are. The pay gap would be narrowed if companies were more conducive to family schedules. Men and women would receive equal pay for the same job. Companies would benefit by retaining quality employees. Men and women need to start out making the same amount of money for the same job, companies need to offer women ample maternity leave, families need to be offered childcare (or childcare compensation), there needs to be a flexible work environment, and men should never be discouraged from taking paternity leave. It seems that women workers have reached a plateau in society. In order for women to be respected as men are) in the workplace there needs to be a redistribution of domestic and family work. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s acceptable now for women to work; but this acceptance into the workforce has not drastically changed what they, women, are expected to perform at home. There is no way for women to move forward to equality in pay if they are not recognized as contributors to their job (i.e. women are still expected to perform outside of work in the family setting as well in a way that men are only expected to perform at work and not at home). As soon as more domestic and family work is allocated to men than women will be able to attain equal pay. Women, with less work at home, will be able to commit to full time jobs, have to leave the workforce less, take less leave, and be able to climb the corporate ladder just as men are today. Since 1942, gender inequality, at least in pay, can be traced. In 1942 the National War Labor Board issued a general order that authorized employers to make voluntary adjustments in salaries or pay in order to demonstrate gender equality (at least in jobs were women and men worked the exact same job and had comparable quality and quantity of work) (CNN). Rates of women in labor unions has been increasing since they have entered the workforce. Even with the increase of women union numbers this inequality of pay still exists. Women are encouraged by unions and other organizations to sue their employer if they are being treated unfairly in the workplace. Women are unlikely to pursue this option against their employers because of limited resources, i.e. money and time. Gender discrimination in the workplace is not only evident in the pay gap but also in sexual harassment and the Ã¢â¬Å"glass ceilingÃ¢â¬ in organizations. The term glass ceiling began as a reference to discrimination against women in the work force. Ã¢â¬Å"Glass ceilingÃ¢â¬ encompasses many different kinds of discrimination against women workers including but not limited to: differences in pay for comparable work, sexual harassment in the workplace, and companies that do not have family-friendly policies. The glass ceiling is an unwritten rule in many businesses. The ceiling is an invisible barrier that usually affects minorities and women. This barrier is extremely debilitating for women in their job because it makes them feel inferior and that their bosses do not take them seriously because of their sex. Women feel that their bosses arenÃ¢â¬â¢t taking them seriously because the bosses do not view them as potential candidates for the most prestigious positions in the establishment. The glass ceiling is another oppressive means used by corporate America to keep women out of powerful positions and keep them from raking in a lot of money; in terms of their gross income. A study done by the U.S Department of Labor in 1991 reviewed nine Fortune 500 companies and the results confirmed that workers in these companies, minorities and women especially, came into contact with the invisible barrier, Ã¢â¬Å"the glass ceilingÃ¢â¬ , very early on in their careers. The U.S. Supreme Court has designated two different types of sexual harassment in workplaces: Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 is harassment that directly results in an employment outcome (ex. the harasser would say that if you donÃ¢â¬â¢t do X you will lose your job). Sexual harassment of Type 2 is not nearly as direct but creates a hostile work environment for the harassed worker. This hostile in environment can be created by rude gestures, sabotaged work, inappropriate name calling, vulgar jokes, unnecessary touching, comment on the appearance of others (physical attributes), etc. Women are now surpassing men in the amount of education, in years and higher degrees, they have. If the workforce does not allow them to pursue executive career options then they will find themselves unable to fill these positions. Women in 1996 earned 1,255,057 college degrees as compared to men who earned 992,638 degrees (Career Planning). The ever increasing amount of women furthering their education makes them more likely to want to enter the job market. Also, the longer a woman is in school the longer she will be in the workforce, when she enters it, because it is likely that she will delay childbearing. Even though female graduates may be even more qualified for a position than her male counterpart the woman will be much more likely to be recommended for a job as an assistant or secretary job than the man. She will be told that this assistant or secretarial job is her way to get her foot in the door at the company. The employers will act like this is a typical entry-level position when in fact a man in the same situation will immediately begin at a much higher level in the company. Women are over represented in the lower paying jobs in the company- almost all assistants and secretarial positions are filled by women while men crowd the top and fill the most prestigious positions in the company. This concentration of men at the top and women at the bottom is called Ã¢â¬Å"occupational segregationÃ¢â¬ . I began the Intro to Critical Feminist Studies course with a very clear idea of what feminism is yet I was hesitant to call myself a feminist. A feminist, to me, is someone who advocates for womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights and their equality as compared to men. Women and men are equal yet both are very different. A feminist is someone who capitalizes on and embraces the differences between men and women. Anyone can be a feminist but feminism, to me, means only advocating for womenÃ¢â¬â¢s issues like gender discrimination in the workplace. Through the semester my definition of feminism has not changed drastically; yet I am much more willing to associate myself with this movement/name. My hesitation in calling myself a feminist was based on worries about the social implications of the word Ã¢â¬Å"feministÃ¢â¬ . I donÃ¢â¬â¢t judge people merely because they attach this label to themselves or associate with other Ã¢â¬Å"feministsÃ¢â¬ so there must have been some deeper concern about the social implications of being one, a feminist. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think that individuals necessarily associate being a feminist with negative things but that socially, in group situations and in the larger context of society and politics, being labeled as a feminist will limit your options. Specifically, I am concerned with the implications of being a Ã¢â¬Å"feministÃ¢â¬ in the workplace. The workplace, to me, is the center of the politically correct and somehow labeling yourself a feminist makes you politically incorrect and socially awkward. Labeling yourself a feminist, ironically, attributes a male characteristic to you, i.e. confidence. Because feminists are labeled with this confidence and that they have such a clear idea of what injustices against women are they are outcasts. This topic, gender discrimination in the workplace, is related to a topic in my previous papers, women and healthcare. The job market is probably the most influential factor in an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to obtain health insurance. This job-place discrimination against women indirectly affects the quality of healthcare available to most American women. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s important to me to have equality in the workplace because I am a women and I donÃ¢â¬â¢t deserve to make less money than a male-counterpart just because of my sex. Even if it is the case that women are in and out of the labor force (more than men) because of familial obligations there is no cause for this discrimination in the workplace. Women are in and out of the labor market caring for men, menÃ¢â¬â¢s children, and menÃ¢â¬â¢s relatives yet women get paid less than men for the same job. There is even more cause for the wage gap to be closed because womenÃ¢â¬â¢s roles are changing; many women are both mothers an d workers. In the past, maybe it was OK (not just but socially acceptable) for women to make less money than men because men were the providers and the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s income was play money. This is no longer the case. Women are now equal providers for their family, possibly the bigger earner, and frequently the sole provider for their household (single moms etc.). A female that just graduated from college with a major in marketing calls an agency to schedule an interview. She gets to the interview on time, well dressed, and ready to be hired. The interview proceeds and the interviewer is impressed with her resume; but is very interested in her typing speed. The interviewer takes the recent grad to another room, a computer lab, where she is sat down and prepared to take a typing test-to determine her words per minute. While typing, she sees an acquaintance of hers from school and he is applying to work for the agency as well. Her male acquaintance is interviewed by the same person yet he is immediately suggested for a position in the company without taking a typing test. The interviewer suggested the taping test for the female grad because having good typing skills would help her get her Ã¢â¬Å"foot in the doorÃ¢â¬ , i.e. she could start out as an assistant or secretary. Even though both prospective employees, the woman and the man, had equit able educations the woman was not encouraged/allowed by the interviewer to enter the ranks of the business as anyone but a secretary (Career Planning). Some examples of gender discrimination in the workplace are: women not being hired for a position (which they are qualified for) because the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s long-time clients feel more comfortable dealing with men, during company cutbacks men with the same job with less seniority keep their job over a woman who has been working for the company for a long time, and women not being able to attain a promotion even though they qualify for it (the woman has exemplary reviews and has earned many awards in her position (like employee of the year, etc.) the promotion is given to a less qualified male). After the National War Labor Board issued general order sixteen the fight for equal pay continues. President John F. Kennedy signed the Equal Pay Act in 1963. This Act signed by JFK applied to 27.5 million workers (both men and women) and required Ã¢â¬Å"employees doing work requiring equal skill, effort and responsibility- and work performed under similar working conditions-be paid equal wagesÃ¢â¬ (CNN). In subsequent years, following both the general order sixteen and the Equal Pay Act, numerous bills and acts have been passed to guarantee women and men equal pay for the same job; yet the pay gap still exists today. A more recent statistic on the pay difference, from 2000, found that women still make .80 cents to the dollar thatÃ¢â¬â¢s paid to their male counterparts (GAO). A few women have been compensated for their lost wages. The Department of LaborÃ¢â¬â¢s Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs, OFCCP, began reviewing corporate management systems in 1993. The OFCCP began the review process after President Bill Clinton signed the Family and Medical Leave Act. This Act protects workers jobs guaranteeing them at least twelve months of unpaid leave due to the birth of a child or extreme family circumstances (someone is very ill, etc.). These reviews of corporate management systems has been instrumental in paying back wages to women. One of the OFCCPÃ¢â¬â¢s reviews included an evaluation of Fairfax Hospital in Virginia. The hospital, as a result of its preliminary review by the OFCCP, agreed to pay over $425,000 in back wages to 52 female workers ; these workers were Ã¢â¬Å"employed in the top six grades of the hospitalÃ¢â¬â¢s personnel structureÃ¢â¬ (CNN). Also, after the hospitalÃ¢â¬â¢s review they gave 44 out of the 52 women pay raises, which gave these individuals more than $178,000 (extra) in total. These raises account for more than $4,000 a year extra income for each woman. Out of all the corporate reviews by OFCCP, the largest settlement was with CoreStates Financial Institution in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. As a result of their review CoreStates paid more than 1.5 million dollars to women and minorities to compensate them for (past) pay discrimination. In addition to paying the 1.5 million dollars to workers CoreStates paid more than Ã¢â¬Å"334,000Ã¢â¬ , in salary adjustments to 76 women and 66 members of minoritiesÃ¢â¬ (CNN). The monetary compensation does not address the root of why women are paid less than men. If companies are willing to settle with the OFCCP and pay lost wages to female workers then they obviously recognize the injustice they are committing in the pay scales. Even with the passage of numerous acts that require employers to give equal pay the gap still continues between women and menÃ¢â¬â¢s salaries. From the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s when JFK signed the Equal Pay Act the number of women workers was at an all-time high. From the beginning of the 60Ã¢â¬â¢s to the mid 70Ã¢â¬â¢s more than half the increase in the amount of workers in the labor force was made up of women. Most of these women were married and delayed having children so they could stay in the labor force longer. Even though womenÃ¢â¬â¢s primary obligations are to their families they still do remain in the workforce after having children. Families canÃ¢â¬â¢t make it without the second income provided by the female. Women are in and out of the labor force but only to recover from childbirth; the number of working moms in 2006 was over 2.6 million. More than 72 percent of mothers in the Unites States, with children under the age of 18, are either employed part or full-time. Women are in hostile environments at home and at work. Women are paid less than men for the same job, are sexually harassed at work, and are cornered into low paying demeaning work. Even though women are expected to be equal providers for their family they are also expected to be the primary caretaker of their family. It is impossible for women to excel in both arenas if they are not granted equality. This equality would include either redistribution of domestic and family work (while women continue to work in the office) or equal respect for Ã¢â¬Å"womenÃ¢â¬â¢s workÃ¢â¬ (women staying at home while men work in the office).
Posted by Eddie Diaz at 9:14 AM
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Fitness Testing For Sport And Exercise Physical Education Essay Dip your fingers in chalk with the hand on your strongest arm, then stand with you back flat against the wall with your arms extended as high as they can reach with them flat against the wall then mark out where your arms reach to/push the wall mounted reach board up to the height your arms will extend to, stand side on stronger arm closest to the wall/board, then crouch low then push straight of the floor and touch the wall/board, measure with the ruler how many cm from where the marking where there arm extended max to the chalk marking how many cms is between the 2 markings, on the board there are already cm measurements on there so you just see which number the finger markings are on. Method of assessment: To measure the amount of explosive power in the lower limbs in cm by measuring how high a persons vertical jump is. How analysed: Measured in cm and mm to make it more accurate and marked on a sheet. Target group: Sprinters and basketballers. Reliability of test: The test is reliable because the same action is made each time so fur, if using the board the measurements are accurate Validity of test: This test is very good for validity being the test most people will do for lower limb power and all four factors are shown too. Advantages/Disadvantages Cost Advantages: Cheap and affordable using simple equipment. Disadvantages: Wall mounted board is really expensive. Time Advantages: The test doesnt take long so it doesnt become tedious. Disadvantages: The short amount of time can be considered as quite a rubbish test. Equipment Advantages: Less equipment is required and wall mounted board is very accurate. Disadvantages: Measurements could be inaccurate if using the cheaper equipment. Level of skill required by the person conducting test Advantages: Low level of skill is required so a lot of people are capable to take this test. Disadvantages: Low level skill could lead to the test to be tedium. Cardiovascular endurance Bleep test, beep test, pacer test, leger-test, 20m shuttle run test. Objective To test the amount of cardiovascular endurance someone has by seeing how long someone can last during the bleep test. Resources needed: Metre clicker to mark out 20m, cones, beep test CD and CD player and marking sheets. (This will take place in a no slip surface) How conducted: The beep test CD will be played and you have to stand behind one line facing the other and there will be beeps in between each beep you have to run from one line to the other e.g. beep run 20m to the line beep. The test starts with the first level where the beeps are quite slow but then after approximately 1 minute or 7 runs the level gets higher and the closer the beeps are together so the test gets faster, this test stops on level 20 and for someone to be out is when they miss the beep before they reach the 20m line. Method of assessment: To measure the cardiovascular endurance or vo2 max in shuttle runs the predicted vo2 max is at each level and the shuttle number i.e. level 4 shuttle 2 predicted vo2 max is 26.8. How analysed: Writing down on recording sheets each level and shuttle they reached or dropped out of and the Vo2 max national average for males is 9/3 and for females 6/6. Target group: Long distance runners Reliability of test: The test is accurate is because the CD plays the same thing over and over again so theres no worries on inaccuracy of the test and also motivation could effect the reliability. Validity of test: This test has good validity because the bleep test is the most valid test used for people to measure Advantages/Disadvantages Cost Advantages: cheap for CD because the copy is downloadable. Disadvantages: could be costly if you dont have a CD player, metre clicker and cones and also expensive if having to rent out a facility. Time Advantages: the test has enough time to record the level they reach. Disadvantages: test lasts quite long and becomes quite tedious. Equipment Advantages: less equipment required and also the equipment is straight forward not complex. Disadvantages: faulty equipment like scratched CD. Level of skill required by the person conducting test Advantages: straight forward because its only running and this is an easy or simple skill to conduct. Disadvantages: cardiovascular endurance a lot of people really struggle with. Strength 1 rep max Objective: To test the amount of strength someone has by seeing the max weight someone lifts. Resources needed: Weight machines e.g. bench press, fly machine, leg press, free weights or lat pull down. (Gym) How conducted: You go to the weight machine you are comfortable with the lifting technique if not get someone to learn you the technique or read how the technique is done on the machine. Which ever weight machine you use you start on the smallest weight by warming up with a few reps 5-15 reps then you work your way by increasing the weight each time you do 1 rep, you work your way increasing the weight until you get the weight you cant do 1 rep of. Method of assessment: To test the amount of strength someone has in the pectoral, deltoid, trapezius, lateral, triceps and biceps by seeing the max amount of kgs someone can do 1 rep of. How analysed: How many kg you lifted and marked on recording sheets. Target group: Rugby players, weight lifters. Reliability of test: The test is reliable because weights stay the same weight unless you increase the weight. Validity of test: This test is valid because it tests the strength in the specific muscle that is working or contracting. Advantages/Disadvantages Cost Advantages: some gyms are quite cheep and its also cheep for a day trial. Disadvantages: some gyms cost loads and also buying your own weights costs quite a lot. Time Advantages: test doesnt take long so it doesnt become boring. Disadvantages: people could consider it being rubbish because its a short test. Equipment Advantages: weight machines are safe to use Disadvantages: free weights can be quite dangerous if using a free weight bench weight could collapse on you if too heavy. Level of skill required by the person conducting test Advantages: the skill is quite simple to do. Disadvantages: its common that people tend to arch there backs when lifting weights so this skill people might not be able to do properly and injure themselves. Suppleness/Flexibility Sit and reach Objective: To test the amount of suppleness someone has in the lower back and calfs by seeing how far someone can sit and reach forwards. Resources needed: A bench, a metre ruler/tape measure or a flex tester. How conducted: Sit with you stomach against the bench lengthways with your both legs either side of the bench and you reach out as far as you can with both hands and hold the position and measure from the start of the bench is to where your hands are held furthest. On the flex tester you sit with you stomach against the flex tester lengthways the with your both legs either side of the flex tester on this piece of equipment there is a handle you push forwards as far as you can and where you push it you see how many cm you have pushed it next to the handle you push. Method of assessment: To test the amount of suppleness someone has in there lower back and the amount of cm the person can reach with the extension of the lower back. How analysed: How many cm the person has reached and put down results on recording sheets. Target group: Gymnasts Reliability of test: This test is reliable because the same action is made and accurate measurements are recorded on flex tester. Validity of test: This test is valid because the only flexibility it will test is in the lower back and hamstrings. Advantages/Disadvantages Cost Advantages: using the bench, tape measure and chalk is quite cheap. Disadvantages: Flex tester is really expensive. Time Advantages: The test doesnt take long so it dont become tedious. Disadvantages: because of the test being short could be considered a pointless test to do and boring. Equipment Advantages: Flex tester has accurate measurements Disadvantages: using the bench, tape measure and chalk could come out with inaccurate measurements. Level of skill required by the person conducting test Advantages: Low level skill is needed because its a simple skill being used. Disadvantages: because of the skill being low level this could lead to the test being tedious. Muscular Endurance Maximum amount of push ups Objective: To test how much muscular endurance in the upper body someone has by seeing the max amount of push ups someone can do. Resources needed: Press up mat and press up handles or non-needed in a flat facility. How conducted: You get into press up position which you place both hands on the press up matt if you get bad wrists you grab onto the press up handles shoulder width apart and extend your legs straight and you lower down and push up and you do as many press ups as you can until you cant physically do more. Method of assessment: To test the amount of upper body muscular endurance someone has by seeing how many push ups maximum someone can do. How analysed: Recording sheets of how many press ups someone has done. Target group: Sprinters, long distance runners Reliability of test: This test is reliable because the same action is repeated so results are easily recorded. Validity of test: This test is valid because it measures what it claims to measure which is the muscular endurance in the upper body and monitors the effect in the athletes physical development. Advantages/Disadvantages Cost Advantages: It doesnt cost much to do and also can be self-monitored. Disadvantages: press up mat and handles can be quite expensive. Time Advantages: Doesnt really waste a lot of time. Disadvantages: doing push ups for too long can become tedious. Equipment Advantages: Not much equipment is required and the handles reduce the risk of wrist injuries. Disadvantages: not using handles can cause wrist injuries. Level of skill required by the person conducting test Advantages: its a straight forward skill so its easy to execute the skill. Disadvantages: quite a number of unfit people cant hold them in a press up position so it becomes quite hard for them. Speed 60m sprint Objective: To test the amount of speed someone has by timing how quick someone runs 60m in. you could use an Resources needed: Stop watches, whistle and a metre clicker to mark out 60m How conducted: A person stands at the 60m mark while you stand at the other end, the person says set for you to get ready and then blows the whistle for you to go when the whistle gets blown they start timing, then you sprint as fast as you can through the 60m mark then they stop timing and the time s set how quick you run 60m in. Method of assessment: To test the amount of speed someone has in running in seconds. How analysed: Stopwatch timed and recording sheets in seconds. Target group: Sprinters Reliability of test: The test is quite reliable because its sprinting over a short distance so similar/consistent times are ran but any timing mistakes can make it inaccurate. Validity of test: This test is valid because it measures what it claims to measure which is how quick someone can move there body over 60m. Advantages/Disadvantages Cost Advantages: equipments quite cheep. Disadvantages: could be costly to use a track depending on the sports centres price. Time Advantages: short sprints dont waste time. Disadvantages: doing short sprints can become tedious. Equipment Advantages: metre clicker is accurate to measure 60m. Disadvantages: stop watches could be faulty. Level of skill required by the person conducting test Advantages: Sprinting is quite a straight forward skill so its easy to do. Disadvantages: sprinting is high intensity so some people might get stitches doing the test if there unfit. Body Composition/ Somatotype Body weighing and skinfold measurement Objective: To see the amount of muscle fat and bone someone has by measuring there weight and there skinfolds. Mesomorph, Ectomorph and Endomorph. Resources needed: Scales and skinfold calipers. How conducted: For the weight test the person needs to step on the scales in just shorts so the weight is more accurate and whatever it comes up on the dial in either KGs or stone is the persons weight. Skinfold measurement you stretch out skin around the torso area and the skinfold calipers work like a pincer and you pinch the skin and on the dial of the calipers it comes up with how many mms there is in the skinfold. Method of assessment: To find out the somatotype someone has. How analysed: Body weighing: kg or stone, skinfold measurement: mm average for a male is 91mm and for a woman its 100mm. Target group: Suitable for all. Reliability of test: Body weighing is reliable because scales are accurate and if you weigh routinely every 12 hours, but the weight results can be affected by the amount of fluid in the body. The skinfold test is reliable because the skinfold calipers have accurate measurement but the measurements can vary through skill and experience. Validity of test: The body weighing test is valid because your weight is the first signs of what body composition you are. The skin fold measurement is not really valid to measure the percentage of body fat but it does indicate the body changes. Advantages/Disadvantages Cost Advantages: Weighing regular is cheap because it dont cost. Measuring skin folds regular doesnt cost. Disadvantages: The scales and the skin fold calipers together are quite expensive. Time Advantages: The test is short so it doesnt waste any time. Disadvantages: Being short considered as boring. Equipment Advantages: Both pieces of equipment have really accurate measurements. Disadvantages: Scales can become faulty after a while. Level of skill required by the person conducting test Advantages: Low level skill and no physical activity so its an easy test. Disadvantages: Because no physical activity and low level skill people a number of people will not want to do the test.
Posted by Eddie Diaz at 12:56 PM
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Importance Of Ecology And Design Ecology is focus on the interaction of living organisms with each other and with the physical and chemical environment. In particular, the relationship between human and the natural environment. Increasing the human population rapidly, limited resources supply from the earth, ecology becomes an essential topic for the human long-term survival. Ecology and design is also called Ecological design, Sustainable development, Green design, Eco-designÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦all is seek ways for reducing the impact to the environment and improving environmental health. any form of design that minimizes environmentally destructive impacts by integrating itself with living processes. from Ecological Design by Sim Van Der Ryn and Stuart Cowan. We have to change the lifestyle and need to follow these ecological principles in order to create a sustainable future. Global warming, losing biodiversity, clear-felling of forests, climate change, and desertificationÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦all showing that Ecological design is the conflict of the design in the future. Designers not only consider How does it work? or How does it look?, they have to confront the challenge that make the design becomes nature. Ecological design is the main concept for all design. Architecture, Urban design, Industry, Fashion, Product, PackageÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦etc, none of them not mention Ecology. Carbon footprint is a tool to measure the impact of the human activities on global warming. Reducing the carbon footprints, can make the earth more long-lasting. Thus, carbon footprint becomes an indication to label the green product. In my group, we chose The Body Shop which is the cosmetic industry as our presentation because they concern the environment and exert to reduce their carbon footprint from the using material, production, packaging, transportation, in store etc. It is valuable to explain the Ecology and design and how they are designed ecologically. The logo of The Body Shop changed litter bit than before. They used a root of the tree and green colour to represent their global business is against climate change and the products are nearly natural. Also, they teamed up with architects, some of them renovate to an ecological sensitive workplace. Consider the sustainable architecture and the quality of the environment, they used renewable energy such as natural light for the day lighting and the wind for the high-quality ventilations. The working condition becomes better because of sustainable design. Moreover, most of their stores refit the LED(light-emitting diode) lighting to improve the energy efficiency and certainly the energy consumption reduced by 70%. It is definitely slow down using in energy and pollution crisis and reduces the carbon footprint. In order to show they are eco-friendly, the walls in the stores were painted in green, brown and white for those are natural colours to represent their values are eco-friendly. For the product of The Body Shop, not only the ingredients, but also the packaging, they always strive to protect the planet and minimize the harm to the environment. Follow the principles of ecological design, the ingredients are grown using time-honoured techniques that means the nutrient in the land can restore naturally after harvest and wont become desertification due to the over-planting. As members of the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm oil (RSPO), all of their soaps are produced using palm oil sourced that is successfully audited in line with RSPO regulations. Thinking about the climate characteristics of the bioregional system, it is a positive case that can give us a healthy planet and reduce the deforestation. Many company just made a beautiful package for its product, they only consider how to attract people to buy the goods and they seldom regard the environment. However, The Body Shop advocates for reducing waste on their packaging. Neither the primary packaging nor the secondary packaging, they wont over-package. The design of the bottle is simple, not very colourful, just a transparent bottle contain some texts and simple shape. Although it is simple, it can reduce the storage space so that it can reduce the use of fossil fuels in the transportation. They only use the necessary material for the packaging to reducing the carbon footprint and it is environmentally friendly. The plastic bottles contain the natural ingredients made form PET (polyethylene terephthalate) which is 100% recycled material. Furthermore, they also used to collect the empty bottles for recycling. Especially the Hemp Heroes gift set is presented in a carton made form highly sustainable materials which are bamboo, 100% cruelty-free bristles and recycled aluminum ferrules and printed with non-toxic inks. All of these materials are helping to communicate the planet and make eco-friendly. In the secondary packaging, they have paper bag and organic cotton bag. For the Paper Bag, they replaced all plastic bags with 100% recycled paper and printed by using water-based inks which are not contain harmful solvents. It can reduce the waste and the pollution for the environment. For the cotton bag which made form 100% organically grown cotton, uses a simple font and natural green colour, some of the words are in bold to emphasis a point and it catches your eye immediately. Since the cotton bag is long-lasting, The Body Shop encourages customers to reuse the bag and give them an environmentally beneficial consumer choices form the paper bag. All of it is friendly product, they consider the relationship between production and consumption and assist consumers to greening the society. That is a good behavior for develop our desirable and sustainable environment. There are three main campaigns that The Body Shop emphasize on. Against Animal testing, protect our planet and Human rights. Animal testing is use of animals for the process in scientific experiments, this testing in the cosmetic industry had been used for thousand of years but nowadays. Although the testing is carried out for the improvement of human lives, there are serious issues and ethical issues we need to faces. The Body Shop against animal testing because they believe that animals should not be used for cosmetic testing due to the animal rights. They have never tested their products on animals, in the same way, they also require their suppliers not test the ingredients on animals for cosmetic purposes. Basically, they against animal testing just for one reason, they dont want to be a cruel corporation and dont willing to carry this inhuman practice on the animals. Without the use of animals on the cosmetics, The Body shop won the RSPCA Good Business Award for a second time, f or their commitment to animal welfare. Being a green retailer, they seek for the sustainable environment and prevent the climate change. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle are their policy. By using the renewable resources, sustainable raw ingredients can protecting the rainforests and minimize the impact to the planet. Also, finding some environmentally friendly crops can prevent erosion and improve the condition of the soil. For campaigned against injustices, The Body Shop use Community Trade ingredients in their products that means the trading is fair and the small-scale farmers can earning a fair wage and working in fair conditions. All the mentions are uphold the human rights and regarding child labour, discrimination, employee pay, hours and working conditions. Design is basic to all human activities but due to human Ecology and Social Change, many of us seek environmentally friendly and reducing our carbon footprints. People no longer just consider the products are user-friendly but also eco-friendly. Sustainable, renewable, reducing destructive of the environment..etc, all of them must be considering in the design process for develop our better future. The Body Shop is one of the industry focuses on this conflict and make their products become natural. Reducing the destructive of the environment, The Body Shop believe that beauty is as much about feeling beautiful as it is about looking beautiful.
Posted by Eddie Diaz at 4:38 PM
Monday, August 19, 2019
Like Castro, Gueverra, and Sandino, Jose Figueres Ferrer holds a place as one of the most important revolutionary and political forces in Latin American history. This so-called “father of modern Costa Rica'; led his country to revolution and eventual democracy. Known affectionately as “Don Pepe'; by his admirers, Figueres was both an enemy of communist and a thorn in the side of the United States. While putting down a communist regime and allying himself consistently with the U.S., Figueres was also a strong socialist and nationalist and would prove to be an enigma to U.S. policy makers during his terms as president. Despite the praise and admiration that Figueres enjoyed, a much darker side to his administration as well as an unmistakable duality in his dealings with the U.S. and democracy itself is seen in his political history. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Following a time of democracy in Costa Rica, in the early 40’s, then president Rafael Calderon allied himself with the Costa Rican communist party, Vanguardia Popular as well as the Nicaraguan dictator Somoza. Figueres would then give a radio speech disdaining Calderon and his actions which would lead to Figueres’ exile to Mexico in 1942. (Cockcroft, 232) Figueres returned in 1944, and an alleged fixing of the 1948 Costa Rican election was the window that he had been waiting for. Supported by the governments of Guatemala, Cuba, and the U.S., Figueres and his Army of National Liberation would force the surrender of President Picado, a puppet of Calderon, and the Vanguardia forces, Figueres would seize control of Costa Rica as the head of the revolutionary junta for eighteen months. Control was then turned over to the rightful winner of the 1948 election, and Figueres would return for three terms as president, the first in 1953 and the final beginning in 1970. (Longley, 3) Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã During his interim term following the revolution and his subsequent terms as president, Figueres would institute a number of changes that would steamroll Costa Rican democracy. Don Pepe began by extending suffrage and full political rights to blacks and women, a certain democratic move. He then instituted a ten percent tax on the very wealthy, which had no considerable backlash politically in Costa Rica due to the surprisingly large middle class. Figueres also established a presidential term limit and created an independent Electoral Tribunal to oversee future elections. In perhaps his most amazing and debated decree, Figueres disbanded the government army, thus protecting himself from the possibility of an out of hand military. Don Pepe :: essays research papers fc Like Castro, Gueverra, and Sandino, Jose Figueres Ferrer holds a place as one of the most important revolutionary and political forces in Latin American history. This so-called “father of modern Costa Rica'; led his country to revolution and eventual democracy. Known affectionately as “Don Pepe'; by his admirers, Figueres was both an enemy of communist and a thorn in the side of the United States. While putting down a communist regime and allying himself consistently with the U.S., Figueres was also a strong socialist and nationalist and would prove to be an enigma to U.S. policy makers during his terms as president. Despite the praise and admiration that Figueres enjoyed, a much darker side to his administration as well as an unmistakable duality in his dealings with the U.S. and democracy itself is seen in his political history. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Following a time of democracy in Costa Rica, in the early 40’s, then president Rafael Calderon allied himself with the Costa Rican communist party, Vanguardia Popular as well as the Nicaraguan dictator Somoza. Figueres would then give a radio speech disdaining Calderon and his actions which would lead to Figueres’ exile to Mexico in 1942. (Cockcroft, 232) Figueres returned in 1944, and an alleged fixing of the 1948 Costa Rican election was the window that he had been waiting for. Supported by the governments of Guatemala, Cuba, and the U.S., Figueres and his Army of National Liberation would force the surrender of President Picado, a puppet of Calderon, and the Vanguardia forces, Figueres would seize control of Costa Rica as the head of the revolutionary junta for eighteen months. Control was then turned over to the rightful winner of the 1948 election, and Figueres would return for three terms as president, the first in 1953 and the final beginning in 1970. (Longley, 3) Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã During his interim term following the revolution and his subsequent terms as president, Figueres would institute a number of changes that would steamroll Costa Rican democracy. Don Pepe began by extending suffrage and full political rights to blacks and women, a certain democratic move. He then instituted a ten percent tax on the very wealthy, which had no considerable backlash politically in Costa Rica due to the surprisingly large middle class. Figueres also established a presidential term limit and created an independent Electoral Tribunal to oversee future elections. In perhaps his most amazing and debated decree, Figueres disbanded the government army, thus protecting himself from the possibility of an out of hand military.
Posted by Eddie Diaz at 8:19 PM
OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s Female RolesÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã LetÃ¢â¬â¢s look at the roles of the three lady-characters in the Shakespearean drama Othello. Their roles are not marginal, but are rather vital to the tragedy. Ã In the Introduction to ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Othello: The Harbrace Theatre Edition, John Russell Brown summarizes the role of the heroine of the play: Ã When considered functionally, DesdemonaÃ¢â¬â¢s role may be seen to be every bit as demanding as those of the principals. The fact that she has far fewer words to speak and is on-stage for a much shorter time detracts nothing from the scope of the role, but rather shows that the actress herself can move the audience with the quiet authority of her stage presence and her realization of this girlÃ¢â¬â¢s courage and openness of mind and heart. (xviii) Ã For the women in Othello, life as they would have it was an uphill battle. Susan Snyder in Ã¢â¬Å"Othello: A Modern PerspectiveÃ¢â¬ reveals some of the hurdles which women had to face in finding a suitable role in society: Ã The pervasive notion of woman as property, prized indeed but more as object than as person, indicates one aspect of a deep-seated sexual pathology in Venice. [. . .] Iago fans to flames the coals of socially induced unease in Othello, fantasizes on his own about being cuckolded by Othello and Cassio. In an ideology that can value only cloistered, desireless women, any woman who departs from this passivity will cause intense anxiety. (295)Ã Ã One key role for the heroine of the drama, Desdemona, is to support the general. David Bevington in William Shakespeare: Four Tragedies states that the hero equates the young woman he so deeply depends on for happiness, with his mother (226). A different role for the her... ...h, Inc., 1973. Ã Kernan, Alvin. Ã¢â¬Å"Othello: and Introduction.Ã¢â¬ Shakespeare: The Tragedies. Ed. Alfred Harbage. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1964. Ã Shakespeare, William. Othello. In The Electric Shakespeare. Princeton University. 1996. http://www.eiu.edu/~multilit/studyabroad/othello/othello_all.html No line nos. Ã Snyder, Susan. Ã¢â¬Å"Othello: A Modern Perspective.Ã¢â¬ Shakespeare: Othello. Eds. Barbara A. Mowat and Paul Werstine. New York: Washington Square Press, 1993. Ã Wayne, Valerie. Ã¢â¬Å"Historical Differences: Misogyny and Othello.Ã¢â¬ The Matter of Difference: Materialist Feminist Criticism of Shakespeare. Ed Valerie Wayne. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1991. Ã Snyder, Susan. Ã¢â¬Å"Othello: A Modern Perspective.Ã¢â¬ Shakespeare: Othello. Eds. Barbara A. Mowat and Paul Werstine. New York: Washington Square Press, 1993. Ã
Posted by Eddie Diaz at 12:01 AM
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Parent and children relationships In this essay, IÃ¢â¬â¢m going to tell you about some of the parent/children issues that do arise. Such as, one of the parents dying, one of the parents leaving, how hard a single parent can find it coping and how much babies can make people grow up. So many things can go wrong when you have a child of your own, especially when you have to bring them up on your own. In flour babies some of these issues do arise. Simon Martin finds out for himself how hard it is to raise a child and how hard it was for his mother to bring him up. In this book Simon Martin actually quotes Ã¢â¬Ëthe fact is, you need two people to look after a baby. One personÃ¢â¬â¢s not enough. You need a substitute. A good reserve. Someone with no particular plans for the evening. Otherwise it simply canÃ¢â¬â¢t be done.Ã¢â¬â¢ This says that heÃ¢â¬â¢s just about to give up on parenthood, because it was too much hard work, without two people. He realises that heÃ¢â¬â¢s got a responsibility now and someone depends on him, and that makes him grow up a lot quicker than he normally would. I think Ã¢â¬ËbaitÃ¢â¬â¢ is quite a hard subject to do on this topic because there are quite a lot of things going on. His dad is a gambler who can easily lose his temper, and whoÃ¢â¬â¢s probably going to ruin his life unless he gives up gambling. The little boy in this has been made to grow up too quickly, because of his dadÃ¢â¬â¢s gambling problem. IÃ¢â¬â¢d have thought that his dad, like in the short film, often embarrasses him like when he started a fight with the tramp and then started crying and hugging him. I think in a situation like this it can be hard for both the child and the parent. The child has to go without quite a few things that other children would take for granted, and the dad needs to live knowing that however much he tries to provide for his son heÃ¢â¬â¢ll never be able to give him everything that all his friends have because he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have the money because he gambles. Another film that displays how hard single parenting is, is Ã¢â¬ËFinding NemoÃ¢â¬â¢. The dad is over protective of nemo because of what happened to his wife and other children when they were eggs.
Posted by Eddie Diaz at 3:43 AM
Saturday, August 17, 2019
The Egwugwu were a significant part of not only Umuofia, but the Ibo culture as a whole. They represented the spiritual ancestors of Umuofia. They were similar to the Ã¢â¬Å"justice systemÃ¢â¬ of today. The Egwugwu were seen as wise and ultimately the most respectable members of the clan.They would review a case of the people and agree on a ruling they felt was Ã¢â¬Å"justÃ¢â¬ . For example, Achebe writes about the Egwugwu judging the case of Uzowulu and his constantly abused wife from page 88 to 94. Even though there were some people who did not agree with the decisions of the Egwugwu, they never dared to speak out against them.Achebe tells the reader the origin of the Egwugwu when writing Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦the spirits of the ancestorsÃ¢â¬ ¦emerged from the earth. The Egwugwu houseÃ¢â¬ ¦faced the forest, away from the crowd, who saw only its back with the many-colored patterns and drawings done by specially chosen womenÃ¢â¬ on page 88. This explains the reader the secrecy and importance of the Egwugwu. They were so sacred that the house they came from couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t even face the rest of Umuofia.For my project, I created a mask similar to the one Achebe describes on page 90. This spirit is portrayed to Ã¢â¬Å"[have a] springy walk. He looked terrible with the smoked raffia body, a huge wooden face painted white except for the round hollow eyes and the charred teeth that were as big as manÃ¢â¬â¢s fingers.Ã¢â¬ ( Achebe 90).I have added clay shaped as teeth to my mask to represent the Ã¢â¬Å"charred teethÃ¢â¬ (Achebe 90). Additionally, I was unable to find horns as Achebe also tells us the spirit has, so I have added feathers instead. This mask would be used anytime the Egwugwu is out in public. The spirits are unable to remove theses masks because doing so would be Ã¢â¬Å"murderÃ¢â¬ (Achebe 186). Also, I have added scorings to the mask to show the detailed markings carved into actual tribal masks.
Posted by Eddie Diaz at 7:25 AM
Friday, August 16, 2019
Ordinary People and The Catcher in the Rye: Reckless Actions In current day society, people strive for the untangible feeling of happiness. Genuine happiness can develop a person to become lovable; however, the nonexistence of happiness may do the complete opposite. Holden a protagonist from the novel, The Catcher in the Rye by J. D. Salinger, and Conrad the main character from the movie, Ordinary People, are searching for this happiness within their own lives. However, they are unable to find it because of the solidarity that they feel between their friends and families.The loneliness and the decreasingly lack of joy in ConradÃ¢â¬â¢s and HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s lives triggers them to make decisions that would lead to consequences which would negatively affect their surrounds in the future. The absence of happiness within the lives of Holden and Conrad causes them to act reckless in different ways that ultimately harms himself and people around him. Throughout the movie Conrad makes many i mpulsive decisions that harms his friends, family members, and also himself.The first wrong decision that started the domino effect on the other wrongful decisions that he makes, is the fact that he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t come back to shore when he and his brother, Buck, saw Ã¢â¬Å"how bad the weather was becomingÃ¢â¬ while they were sailing. This decision results to the death of his brother and the event stays in his mind leading to the reckless behavior that begins to engulf his mind. Following, this decision is ConradÃ¢â¬â¢s suicidal attempt by cutting his wrists vertically in his bathroom sink.Although this act puts pain on his family, it mostly affects Conrad physically and emotionally because he has to endure the pain of the slits and the depression that had caused him to make the decision to begin with. Even after Conrad returns from the hospital he continues to feel the lack of happiness within his own life. The depression causes him to not want to eat the breakfast that his mot her makes just for him. Hurt by the rejection, ConradÃ¢â¬â¢s mother dumps the meal into the drain and leaves in an abrupt manner.In addition, much of the bottled up emotions that Conrad keeps causes him to become quite distant with his own family and his friends. This solidarity eventually leads Conrad to lose his past close relationships with them. These impulsive decisions allow Conrad to expand upon his emotions, since in the beginning of the movie he bottles it up and allows it to accumulate over time. Within the novel, Holden displays reckless attitude that results in harming both himself and those around him.The factor of his reckless behavior begins when Holden runs away from Pency Prep due to the fact that he gets kicked out and is afraid that his parents would be upset. In turn, Holden decides to live in the city and waits till he is expected to come home. This act eventually leads him to hurt himself mentally because after a time spent in the city, Holden begins to Ã¢â¬ Å"feel more depressed.. Ã¢â¬ and lonely (95). In an act of desperation, Holden tries to fill in his loneliness and sorrows by finding company with a girl named Sally that he Ã¢â¬Å"wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t too crazy aboutÃ¢â¬ (105).However, as Holden and Sally are still on their date, Holden displays his reckless behavior when he insults Sally calling her Ã¢â¬Å"a pain in the assÃ¢â¬ (133). Sally is thus deeply hurt by the insult and Ã¢â¬Å"she was even cryingÃ¢â¬ (134). This act in turn leaves Holden to become lonely and depressed once again. With the feeling of depression weighing on his shoulder, Holden decides to leave town and head for the west. Phoebe, HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s kid sister, hearing his plan also wants to tag along as well bringing along her suitcase that contains her personal items.Even though Holden doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to be alone, he refuses his sisterÃ¢â¬â¢s plea to run away with him and in turn results him to display another act of recklessness. Holden yells at Ph oebe telling her to shut up which triggers her to Ã¢â¬Å"start to cryÃ¢â¬ (206). HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s consideration of leaving Phoebe hurts Phoebe because she really cares about her brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s well being. Since HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s siblings Allie and D. B are no longer currently living in the household, if Holden were to run away, Phoebe would feel lonely having only her parents as companions.Holden and Conrad are similar types of characters because they both act recklessly and unintentionally hurt themselves and the people that surround them. Both of the characters punch one of their good friends due to immature decisions. Holden gets into a fist fight with Stradlater since Holden continues to invoke Stradlater about his date with Jane, knowing that a punch to the face would follow the dispute. This act displays that Holden makes wrongful decisions knowing the consequences of the act, however still continuing with the act.In addition, Conrad also displays reckless behavior by contin uingly punching Stillman out of the remark that Stillman makes of Jeannine. Conrad punches Stillman out of anger and frustration since Dr. Berger, ConradÃ¢â¬â¢s psychiatrist, unlocks his emotions; it begins pouring out uncontrollably. With this act of violence, Conrad loses many of his once close friends because his friends now perceive him as Ã¢â¬Å"crazyÃ¢â¬ after the punching incident. Both Holden and Conrad displays thoughtless decisions by punching their friends in an act of rage which results in the consequences of more hurt.Even though Holden and Conrad may be similar they are more different than alike because they exhibit different acts of recklessness. While Holden may use strong words and loud voices to harm others, Conrad uses physical actions to harm the ones around him. When Holden was on his date with Sally in the restaurant, he begins to ramble about the future that Sally and Holden could have together. Holden suggests that Sally runs away together with him howev er Sally rejects his proposal causing Holden to become upset.This urge that is raging inside of him impulses him to say things that he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t think through therefore enabling him to insult her. However, this is not the only case in which Holden says things without thinking. In another scenario where he is speaking to Phoebe, Holden tells Phoebe to shut up, he Ã¢â¬Å" didnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean to tell her to shut up Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ but the impulse enabled him to do so (206). On the other hand, Conrad uses his non-thought out actions to affect the people around him. Having Conrad attempting suicide by cutting his wrists vertically harms his family because it causes them to have to worry about their son.ConradÃ¢â¬â¢s parents have already lost a son and if they were to lose another one then it would further devastate their familyÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation and the family would thus fall apart. In addition, due to ConradÃ¢â¬â¢s depression it causes him to not have an appetite when eating. Th us, when ConradÃ¢â¬â¢s mom makes him breakfast and he refuses, this act causes his mother to become hurt from the rejection and therefore dump the meal in the garbage dispenser. Even so the slightest of actions of Conrad should effect and hurt the people around him.In conclusion, even though both Holden and Conrad are unintentionally hurting their loved ones, they differently act out recklessly when making out a decision. Both Holden and Conrad are both misunderstood teenagers that are trying find a way to get through the day. This is caused by the fact that their life is missing the genuine happiness that everyone in society searches for. However, at the end of both stories, they eventually achieve their idea of true happiness and therefore can live through the day knowing that they are truly happy.
Posted by Eddie Diaz at 11:06 AM
Thursday, August 15, 2019
Throughout this work I will relate to a case study. I will provide a definition of abuse using both sociological and psychological perspectives to contribute to our understanding of the causes of abuse. I will define the types, indicators, signs and symptoms of abuse and its impact on families and individuals, identifying factors relevant to the case study, recognising and explaining current legislation making reference to Government reports/inquiries and research into failures to protect from harm and abuse. I will consider the policies and procedures that my work place use and I will identify some statutory and voluntary agencies and their roles in supporting those affected by abuse, relating specifically to the abuse of children. My understanding is abuse is an unpleasant and harmful treatment of an individual, which can effects physical and psychological welfare and may affect future development. Abuse can cause an individual a great deal of distress and fear, as well as physical injury and may affect their emotional development. Ã¢â¬Å"Child maltreatment is the abuse and neglect that occurs to children under 18 years of age. see more:identify reports into serious failures to protect individuals from abuse in health and social care It includes all types of physical and/or emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect, negligence and commercial or other exploitation, which results in actual or potential harm to the childÃ¢â¬â¢s health, survival, development or dignity in the context of a relationship of responsibility, trust or power. Exposure to intimate partner violence is also sometimes included as a form of child maltreatmentÃ¢â¬ (WHO) A Psychological & Sociological Perspective into the Causes of Abuse Psychological theory focuses on the instinctive and psychological qualities of those who abuse. Believing itÃ¢â¬â¢s the abusers abnormalities that are responsible for abuse, abusive parents may have been abused in childhood. Psychodynamic theory claims abuse and neglect are a bi-product of maternal deprivation. The mother has suffered abuse herself, displays a lack of empathy, sensitivity and responses to her child. Mother and child relationships are the focus with the mothersÃ¢â¬â¢ psychological make-up key. Psychodynamic psychologists say we are born with drives which need satisfying and if not satisfied one can be psychologically stuck at a certain stage EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"lifespanÃ¢â¬ theory saw that universally people face conflict throughout stages of life, he said people faced conflicts influenced by social relationships, rather than their own psycho-sexual development. At each stage of life Erikson believed was: a conflict to resolve and a balance to achieve between the two with a possible positive outcome, creating a Ã¢â¬ËvirtueÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬Ëego strengthÃ¢â¬â¢ allowing competency in all other areas of life or if not resolved a negative Ã¢â¬ËmaladjustmentÃ¢â¬â¢ causing disadvantage in the succeeding stage. For example at Stage 1 Ã¢â¬â Infancy, conflict Ã¢â¬â trust versus mistrust. A baby learns from attentive care to trust, or through neglect, mistrust in the world. Good resolution of this stage leads to the ego strength of hope about the world. The mala djustment can be either mistrust or insecurity. Erikson believes people whoÃ¢â¬â¢ve had problems in life havenÃ¢â¬â¢t resolved conflict beforehand and as each stage is programmed the individual cannot relive a stage however work can be done to resolve some of the issues. Ã¢â¬Å"Hope is both the earliest and the most indispensable virtue inherent in the state of being alive. If life has to be sustained hope must remain, even when confidence is wounded, trust impairedÃ¢â¬ Erikson, 1950. (Bingham et al. p78) Sociological theory emphasise social and political conditions as most important reason for child abuse, examining social conditions that create the climate for abuse, not individual factors. Feminist theory sees abuse as longstanding male power over women and children, believing men abuse to exert power. Brownmiller 1975, revealed sexual abuse is more than an action committed by one man against one woman; it is a imposing tool of male control over women, an exercise of power with a philosophy to instruct women to fear male violence. Ã¢â¬Å"A sexual invasion of the body by force, an incursion into the private, personal inner space without consent. . . . constitutes a deliberate violation of emotional, physical and rational integrity and is a hostile, degrading act of violence that deserves the name of rapeÃ¢â¬ (Brownmiller, S p377) The five most common social service workers will likely see are: Physical Abuse, Emotional Abuse, Sexual Abuse, Neglect and Financial Abuse. Physical abuse is causing bodily harm it may involve hitting, shaking, throwing, poisoning, burning or scalding, drowning or suffocating or excessive discipline or family violence, use of restraints or imprisonment, denial or misuse of medication, physical aids and adaptations or when the carer feigns ill-health of a child. Some signs and indicators may be physical (several injuries in various stages of healing, repeated injuries or accidents over a period of time, injuries that form a shape like the object used to injure (buckle, hand, iron, teeth, cigarette burns), or death. Behavioural indicators include (negative self-image, deserving punishment, no recall how injuries occurred, offer inconsistent explanations, wary of others and reluctance to go home) Physical abuse can be seen in relation to John Burn (60). He claimed no recollection to a black-eye and urged for his son not to be informed, although it is important not to cast assumptions. Emotional abuse is persistent neglect with severe effects on a childÃ¢â¬â¢s emotional development. Can involve conveying worthlessness, detested, inadequate or valued only to meet the needs of another. It may involve the imposition of age- or developmentally-inappropriate expectations on a child or causing children fear or danger, or exploiting or corrupting them. Some level of emotional abuse is persistent in all ill treatment. Both physical (Bed-wetting/soiling without medical cause, prolonged vomiting/diarrhoea, not attained developmental milestones) and behavioural (play models negative behaviour/language, depression, anxiety, withdrawal or aggression) signs may be indicators. John Burn did not want his son to be told anymore of his black-eye as he would be annoyed, Ann reported Peter gets loud and aggressive at night and appeared apprehensive during social work visit as Peter did not want interference. Sexual abuse includes acts or behaviours where a more powerful person uses another for a sexual purpose. It may involve a stranger, however most sexual abuse is by someone known and trusted. It includes touching, fondling, sexual intercourse, exposure of private parts, or seeking to be touch for sexual gratification. Also voyeurism, pornographic photographing or involvement of children, prostitution or using internet/phone for sexual conversations with children. Indicators can be: physical: bruises, swelling or bleeding in genital/vaginal/anal area, torn, stained or bloody underclothing, and STIÃ¢â¬â¢s. Behavioural Ã¢â¬â cringing/flinching if touched; caregiver constantly calling Ã¢â¬ËstupidÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËdumbÃ¢â¬â¢ and can be displayed by child or abuser. Scottish Government acknowledges Ã¢â¬Å"not every case of sexual activity in under-16s has child protection concerns, but some may need support in relation to their sexual development and relationshipsÃ¢â¬ (fpa.org. uk). Ann (17) has learning difficulties and would have been under 16 during her first pregnancy. Due to her age and vulnerability Child Protection issues should have been raised as Peter is almost double AnnÃ¢â¬â¢s age and the Sexual Offences (Scotland) Act 2009 states Ã¢â¬Å"sexual activity between an adult and someone under 16 is a criminal offenceÃ¢â¬ Neglect Ã¢â¬â failure to meet basic physical and/or psychological needs, likely to result in the serious impairment of health or development, involving failure to provide food, shelter and clothing, or to protect from physical harm/danger, or failure to obtain medical care/treatment, failure to respond to basic emotional needs. Possible physical indicators may be: Inappropriately dress for weather, dirty, unkempt, lengths of time unsupervised, malnourished, severe nappy rash or persistent skin disorders from lack of care and hygiene. Both children in the case study are neglected they have unsatisfactory medical attendance with George (1) suffering nappy rash, inflamed skin and missed inoculations since birth. Kyle (2) has missed medicals which couldÃ¢â¬â¢ve addressed his development needs. Financial abuse includes stealing money or property, fraud, pressure in connection with savings, wills, inheritance or personal financial transactions, embezzlement, pensions or benefits. Possible signs and indicators of this abuse: unusual & unexplained activity in bank accounts, embezzlement or unpaid bills. John Burn may have been financially abused, he has no recollection of missing money and is unable to manage without it, and again does not want his son to know. The impact and effects of the above abuse within the case study is apparent as Peter Burns has traded a dependency on heroin for alcohol which sees him sleep all day, neglecting his role within the family and becomes loudly aggressive at night, this would cause fear in the rest of the household. Protection means recognising concerns and understanding how to share concerns, investigate, assess and the steps required to ensure safety and well-being. Legislation places a variety of duties and responsibilities on services and organisations. Neglectful indicators seen in both infants within the study, social work may say that the parents breach Ã¢â¬ËSection 5 of The Children (Scotland) Act 1995Ã¢â¬â¢ which states Ã¢â¬Å"a parent has in relation to his child the responsibility to safeguard and promote the childÃ¢â¬â¢s health, development and welfareÃ¢â¬ . (www.scotland.gov.uk) Ã¢â¬Å"State Parties shall take all appropriate legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to protect the child from all forms ofÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦abuse, while in the care of parent(s), legal guardian(s) or any other person who has the care of the child.Ã¢â¬ (Article 19Ã¢â¬â¢ UNCRC) This places responsibility on the social worker and health professionals in case study. Legislation is often formed as a response to public inquiries, highlighting poor practice/abuse that takes place with authority or private providers, government investigations highlight failures and make recommendations to prevent future incidents. Summary of Fatal Accident Inquiry Determination: The Deaths on Erskine Bridge Niamh and Georgia died below Erskine Bridge, 4/10/2009, by suicides. Having walked from the Good Shepherd Open Unit, stopping at the centre of the Bridge, both girls died on impact with the water. The Inquiry lasted 65 days and it ruled deaths avoidable had reasonable precautions been taken: Ã¢â¬ËStaff members on duty at the Unit been higher. Had Niamh & Georgia risk assessment needs assessed and accommodated at a different location within the UnitÃ¢â¬â¢. Several recommendations were made following relating to: security, supervision, management, lack of information, risk/psychological assessments missing, better communication system and accurate recording /time keeping amongst others. Professor S Platt of Health Policy Research at University of Edinburgh made three recommendations which are reflected in residential policies now. 1. Local authorities to commission guidelines for staff on recognising and mitigating suicide risk in this client group. These guidelines should include the requirement to develop a detailed management protocol. 2. The management protocol should set out the procedures to be implemented when a looked after and accommodation child is considered to be at risk of self-harm or suicide e.g. by making suicide Ã¢â¬ËthreatsÃ¢â¬â¢, by expressing suicidal thoughts or by making preparations for suicide. The protocol should cover inter alia the allocation of duties and responsibilities. 3. Professionals working with looked after and accommodated children, either directly or indirectly should have a sound understanding self-harm and suicide among their clients and of appropriate interventions to mitigate that risk. Provision of appropriate training on start of employment and regularly thereafter (as part professional development). (Scotland-judiciary.com) Results of recommendations mean frequent suicide prevention training is mandatory, new traffic light system of reporting absconders/missing people, created in partnership with Strathclyde Police and Local Authorities reflecting individual risk assessments, allowing staff to identify and prevent risks of self harm or suicide and report efficiently should they suspect an absconder is at risk. My workplace lengthy child protection policy, provides guidelines for all eventualities. In the case of a disclosure the child/young person would be informed that information would be passed on if it related to their wellbeing being harmed, allowing them to speak without interruption, listen to-do not coheres, donÃ¢â¬â¢t make judgement, positive praise for sharing with you and inform them that you will do all in your power to support them. It must then be reported to the child protection officer who would deal with the formal reporting if it were deemed necessary. I could be asked to help assess the child or provide statements to police. In the case of the abuser staff working in safeguarding children has a responsibility to ensure children are adequately protected and a responsibility to share information about individuals where a risk of child abuse is suspected with Social Care Service Managers. Legislation, National Care Standards and SSSC Codes of Practice contribute to the protection of children and vulnerable adults. In NCSÃ¢â¬â¢s for school care accommodation services standard 3.3 looks at care and protection states that workers are aware of child protection policies and procedures. Standard 3.7 ensures protection issues are dealt with using policies and procedures. The SSSC codes of practice contribute to protection code 3.2 states we must carry out the correct processes and procedures to challenge and report dangerous, abusive, discriminatory or exploitive behaviour and practice. code 3.7 states we must support service users/carers to make complaints, taking complaints seriously, responding to or passing to appropriate person. Code 2.7 states to respect confidential information. For child protection, no Schedule One offence is ever Ã¢â¬ËspentÃ¢â¬â¢ in terms of Rehabilitation of Offenders Act 1974. The Sexual Offences Act 2003 has sections relevant to care workers and committed against service users such as; Section 39 Care workers: causing or inciting sexual activity, Section 40 Care workers: sexual activity in the presence of a person with a mental disorder & Section 41 Care workers: causing a person with a mental disorder to watch a sexual act. The support, therapy and treatment of those affected by abuse is an important factor in ensuring wellbeing and safety. Statutory, voluntary and private/independent organisations provide diverse services some of which may overlap. Set up through government remit such as SurvivorScotland, social service and education departments, CAMHS are part of the NHS who support young people and their families with emotional, behavioral and mental health difficulties. A single shared assessment from a multi-agency partner ship of professionals not only protect but prevent with early intervention. Many voluntary agencies/charities focus on helping children such as, Barnardos, Womens Aid and the NSPCC (National Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Children) who work at national, regional and local level, some of their services include Childline as well as advise lines like the CTAC (Child Trafficking Advice Centre). Private services are profit driven, including home care providers and respite services. Instances of disclosure in various aspects which must be always dealt with professionally no matter how distressing. Workers/carers are offered support in the form of counselling through BACP (The British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy) or services such as mind, Re-think or Samaritans whoÃ¢â¬â¢ll listen to, provide support, advice, signposts or referrals to other agencies. There will be instances where workers will support the Ã¢â¬ËabusedÃ¢â¬â¢ however may find themselves supporting an Ã¢â¬ËabuserÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬Ësomeone at risk of abusingÃ¢â¬â¢. Police, Prison Services, Local Authorities, and Social Services work closely to minimise risk and supervise offenders in the community. It is crucial not to allow personal feelings/values to conflict with professionalism. The Human Rights Act, Article 8: Right to privacy, highlights the importance of confidentiality in this line of work, however this right can be limited if it is necessary to protect public safety which Police and Social Work would determine through on-going reviews of risk level each offender poses, reducing the likelihood of further offending by providing sex offender group-work through social work services. Not all sex offenders are alike, some people have deep regrets and go on to be law-abiding whereas others have deep-rooted psychological problems requiring intensive support to manage behaviour. Workers should bear in mind that a significant proportion of sexual crimes go unreported and there are a number of sex-offenders not known to the authorities and need t o take sensible safety precautions if you should suspect such individuals. Workers will have supervision with managers where issues are highlighted or access to counselling. Bibliography BINGHAM, E. et al. (2009) HNC in Social Care. For Scotland. Essex: Heinemann. BROWNMILLER, S. (1975) Against Our Will: Men, Women and Rape. New York: Simon and Schuster. CHILD MATTERS (2014) Learn about Child Abuse [Online]. Available from: http://www.childmatters.org.nz/42/learn-about-child-abuse/what-is-child-abuse [Accessed: 20th March 2014] COMPANY POLICIES & PROCEDURES. ANON (Data Protection Act 1998) SC03-Child Protection MIND (2014) How to Cope as a Carer [Online]. Available from: http://www.mind.org.uk/media/859562/how-to-cope-as-a-carer-2014-.pdf [Accessed: 3rd May 2014] SCOTTISH PARLIMENT. SCOTTISH GOVERNMENT MINISTERS. (2012) National Care Standards. [Online]. Available from: http://www.nationalcarestandards.org/52.html [Accessed: 7th March 2014]. SCOTTISH PARLIMENT. SCOTTISH GOVERNMENT MINISTERS (2010) National Guidance for Child Protection in Scotland & The Children (Scotland) Act 1995 & National Guidance Ã¢â¬â Under-age Sexual Activity [Online]. Available from: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2010/12/09134441/8 http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/254432/0078985.pdf http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2004/10/20066/44708 [Accessed: 7th March & 19th May 2014] SCOTLAND JUDICIARY Fatal Accident Inquiry into the Deaths on Erskine Bridge (2010) [Online]. Available from: http://scotland-judiciary.com/10/895/Fatal-Accident-Inquiry-into-the-deaths-on-Erskine-Bridge [Accessed 9th May 2014] THE OXFORD DICTIONARY (2014) Abuse [Online] Available from: http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/abuse [Accessed 17th March 2014] LIBERTY (2014) Human Rights Act Myths [Online] Available from:
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