Saturday, February 29, 2020

Challenges Faced by Managers in the Public Sector

Challenges Faced by Managers in the Public Sector There are different levels of management in the three different sectors of the economy. There are non-managerial employees, first-line managers, middle managers and the top managers. Robbins et al ;( 2009). This essay will critically evaluate the challenges faced by managers in the public sector organisations. The essay will assess the roles of the manager in this sector and the difficulties managers encounter whilst carrying out their duties. The challenges posed by organisational structure and design with an example from the Northampton Borough Council, the issues due to the organisational culture, privatisation of some of the public sector services, the strategic management of the public sector and the complexities due to the constant changing environment in which these organisations operate, and the challenges to managers of the most recent comprehensive budget cuts, will be evaluated in this essay. The typical roles of a manager in any organisation is to organise, lead, plan an d control the activities of the people and other resources within it towards achieving the objectives of that organisation; Naylor (2004). The role a manager plays is dependent on the level of management position although each level has its challenges. At the senior level, the manager’s role is much broader and in depth and it requires creativity and innovativeness; Robbins et al (2009). The senior manager is involved in decision making, strategic management planning and control, the manager, at this level of management is expected to have an understanding of all areas of the organisation to enable sensible handling of any given situation Hanagan;(2008). The role of the manager did not change in the 21st century rather the method of carrying out the above mentioned roles are different, for instance the manager has to organise work differently, communication is more sophisticated such as, the use of internet, mobile telephones and e-mail. In recent times, the management of cha nge is considered as the most important skill of management due to the pace of change in the 21st century Hanagan, (2008).The rapid changes in technology, enormous improvements in communication, the increase in focus on global economy, and the environment are issues to the modern day manager. In addition to the above, the role of the manager in the public sector is challenged by the constant changes in legislation and political policies subject to government in power Hanagan (2008). An organisation is an arrangement which has been set up for a particular purpose. Robbins et al (2009). Different organisations belong to different sectors of the economy. There are three sectors; the public, the private and the third sector such as social enterprises. This three sectors have some common characteristics which are: they all have distinct purpose, each organisation is made up of people, and all create a structure within which the people could carry out their duties Robbins et al(2009). Org anisations are grouped as public sector depending on certain factors such as; how much the organisation competes with similar organisations, goods and services are charged indirectly and how much it allows itself to be influenced by demand and supply of goods and services. The less such organisations are influenced by the above factors the more the organisations are considered as public sector organisations Hanagan (2008). Instances of these organisations are; Local Government council, Libraries, the National Police Force, the Defence Ministry, Colleges and Universities. The common features of these organisations are; they are set up to fulfil specific purposes, they are service motivated, they are accountable to many stakeholders and the public, they carry out their duties for the good of the people and they are funded through the use of taxpayers’ money. Avery important challenge to a manager whether in the public sector or in the private sector is to be aware of their rele vant stakeholders and operate the organisation in ways which will yield maximum returns to each stakeholder group Bloisi et al (2007).

Thursday, February 13, 2020

Business Plan (3Gen Informatics) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Business Plan (3Gen Informatics) - Essay Example A business plan is often considered to be a crucial step for an entrepreneur intending to inaugurate new business venture or expand business unit to a newly located marketplace. The plan generally assists an entrepreneur towards performing various operations resulting in attaining superior competitive position in the respective industry. With this concern, this paper intends to prepare a realistic along with a practical business plan for the proposed business venture relating to computer sales and service. In order to increase the viability of the business plan concerning the above depicted business venture, the business plan s would encompass various aspects associated with the type of business. In this similar context, the plan would clearly depict the business including its offerings, sales and marketing strategies, information of management groups and their roles amid other relevant factors. Brief Overview of the Venture 3Gen Informatics is a proposed business organization which would deal with the business of computer sales and service. ... inclusive collection of selling computer systems including hardware, software and network trouble shooting for small, medium and large business industries. The services of the organization will be focused on designing and installing network systems, computer hardware along with software supports and training programs. The objective of 3Gen Informatics would be to provide individuals with wide range of services consisting of providing solutions to network problems, hardware and software upgrades, repairing hardware and many more. Thus, the initial investment will be less as the company will focus on services more rather than selling hardware components. Additionally, the company would also recruit five new members in order to accomplish its different computer sale and service related functions. Choice of Sources of Funds for Your Business with Justification Preparing an effective and valid financial plan can be duly considered as one of the major aspects for entrepreneurs to develop a n effective business plan. The financial forecast of the business plan would typically involve various major outlines of identifying different costs that are required to start and operate the overall process of the organization. An effective and authentic financial plan for a business involves various attributes such as balance sheet, cash flow and profit statement which aids in accomplishing feasible and profitable outcome from the business operations (Byrne, n.d.). In this regard, the initial investment for starting up a business would require greater initiatives from the owners or the partners. In relation to the proposed business venture, a projection of US$ 100,000 can be made in order to start up the venture including all required expenses. In this regard, a sum of US$ 60,000 would

Saturday, February 1, 2020

Science , Magic and Witchcraft Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Science , Magic and Witchcraft - Essay Example There are several common or specific elements of a religion: the human being is closely overseen by the divinity, God knows all the good and bad deeds and in the end He awards or not the man, the Judgment day, the revival of the deaths, the belief in some saints,(Christianity, Islamism, Judaism), the caste system, the reincarnation(Hinduism), the holiness of man or woman and of all the world around us(Animism) .These rules or convictions may have a different echo in a man's mind. He may try to follow this set of laws , to make only good around him or he may be rebellious, he may seek to live after his conventions, and maybe in the end he will leave the respective religious system. The other extreme is when a believer might wait only the help of the saints , without acting by himself. In this case we talk about a false goal in life. There are cases when a belief in something or someone is misinterpreted and it leads to conflicts between societies(for example the terrorist attacks or t he interference of different countries in the political, religious, administrative systems of the other ones). Hinduism is perhaps the system that affects most an individual or the society. In this case the developing may be impossible to achieve. This belief has in its center the caste system and the reincarnation. So, an adept of this religion may struggle to do only good deeds, to raise , spiritually speaking , but he will always have the stigmata of his caste, which is the most important characteristic of a person. This type of belief affects a lot the society( people are not free to live according to their powers, marriages are arranged etc.) Animism declares that the human possesses soul that has life apart the body, before and after the death(the souls leave the human body during dreams or raise to heavens after death). Hindus believe that souls move up and down, and that they are stratified in a hierarchy. Ghosts are said to be the souls that haunts the livings. Ghosts have semi-corporal forms or may take different appearances. Imbedded, these definitions show the difference between a soul and a ghost. The latter is the unhappy or the unsatisfied soul that cannot leave this world and it is haunting between the spiritual and the material world. Souls transform into ghosts especially when a human being is murdered or suffers an injustice. The ghost is the restless soul that seeks to make justice after the death. The major religious systems have in their center the divinity seen as a male: Judaism and Christianity praise God and Jesus and Islamism pays tribute to Allah and Mohammad. These are monotheistic religions. Animism and Hinduism are polytheistic religions with god or goddesses. In the case of the monotheistic ones it is important to see how man and woman are treated. In the case of Muslims is known the fact that they treat woman in a negative way. On the paper she has many rights, but in practice much of those rights are forgotten. So, she has the to a career , but in many cases she stays home with the children or if she has a job she is attentively supervised by a relative. She must not have relations with other men or dress provocatively. If they divorce their husband takes the children(this is a very controversial thing, because this is seen by other cultures as a way of manipulating women). Of course some of these rules are found in other religions , but here are more severe and w ith real punishes. The Christianity also says